So everything is connected properly Adaptable able to adjust dynamically The

So everything is connected properly adaptable able to

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- So everything is connected properly? - Adaptable (able to adjust dynamically)?
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The skeleton is surprisingly dynamic Several major types of cells respond to many stimuli Bone Depository cells osteoblasts chondroclasts osteoclasts (become osteocytes or lining cells) Cartilage chondrocytes Tendon fibroblasts Ligament fibroblasts Resorptive cells
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Mesenchyme embryonic connective tissue stem cells made up of loosely associated, often stellate cells, and a dispersed extracellular matrix Mesodermal sclerotome Neural Crest Paraxial mesoderm Bones grow in a special way Neural crest
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endoplasmic reticulum (polypeptide formation) golgi aparatus (vesicles) Mesenchymal stem cell Osteoblast Osteocyte
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Osteoblasts synthesize bone in a two step process: 1. Lay down a collagen matrix (osteoid) 2. Then mineralize it Crystallites precipitate out of supersaturated solution into collagen matrix
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Mesenchyme Intramembranous bone formation Periosteal membrane Osteoblasts Collagen matrix (osteoid) Biomineralization Endochondral bone formation perichondrium chondrocytes anlagen replacement of cartilage w/ bone Two pathways of bone growth:
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Mesenchyme Intramembranous bone formation Periosteal membrane Osteoblasts Collagen matrix (osteoid) Biomineralization
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Periosteum (full of mesenchyme) osteoblasts new bone EXAMPLE: Intramembranous formation of cranial vault
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Intramembranous bones mostly form around organs/spaces most of skull clavicle
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1. Bone is added in sutures A key property: Allows bones to grow around g r o w i n g organs
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2. Bone moved through DRIFT! •bone resorption on one surface •bone deposition on opposite surface A key property: Allows bones to grow around g r o w i n g organs Adult’s vault Child’s vault + + + + + + + - - - - - - osteoblasts osteoclasts
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Endochondral bone growth Mesenchyme Intramembraneous bone formation Endochondral bone formation Periosteal membrane osteoblasts collagen matrix (osteoid) biomineralization Perichondrial membrane anlagen replacement of cartilage w/ bone chondrocytes
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CHONDROCYTE SV, secretory vesicles ER (endoplasmic reticulum) Cartilage matrix
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Endochondral bones begin as masses of mesenchyme (anlagen) that become filled with cartilage matrix
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Mesenchymal cells chondrocytes Hypertrophic chondrocytes Nutrient vessel Periosteal collar Osteoblasts Anlagen* Chondroblasts New bone Then they become bones through a series of steps *Anlagen (German word) means a pre-form of something
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  • Fall '10
  • AndrewA.Biewener,PeterT.Ellison,andDanielE.Lieberman

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