2014 2013 2012 2011 source bureau of justice

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2014 2013 2012 2011 Source : Bureau of Justice Statistics (2015). Copyright ©2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. This work may not be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without express written permission of the publisher. Draft Proof - Do not copy, post, or distribute
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352 PART FOUR: Children, Social Problems, and the Future of Childhood (Exhibit 11.5), sad to see how vulnerable the youngest youth are to violence compared to older youth and adults in our society. It is easy to understand why Nicholas’s mother, Angela, sprayed her chil- dren each morning with a religious oil to try to protect them when they left their home, and why Nicholas’s younger brother Willie preferred the play- ground at McDonald’s. “‘There’s a giant hamburger and you can go inside of it,’ Willie said. ‘And it’s made out of steel, so no bullets can get through’” (Wilkerson, 1993, p. 16). The Profound and Inspiring Resilience of Children and Youth in Highly Challenging Life Circumstances Children are victimized and their lives uprooted and disrupted by natural disasters, political and corporate corruption and maleficence, war and political violence, racism, and hate crimes (Bellinger & Bellinger, 2006; Boyden & de Berry, 2004; Carlton-Ford, 2004; Fothergill & Peek, 2015; Garbarino, Kostelny, & Dubrow, 1991; Özerdem & Podder, 2011; Sirin & Rogers-Sirin, 2015; Wyness, 2016). We close this chapter with a review of important recent research on children affected by war (as soldiers, victims, and refugees) and natural disasters—in particular, children whose lives were upended by the trauma of Hurricane Katrina. RESILIENCE OF CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN WAR AND NATURAL DISASTERS Michael Wyness (2016) argues that even though there is a global commit- ment to protecting children from war and conflict, children often have to take care of their own material integrity as well as supporting others “main- taining and creating social networks within which there are spaces for self- protection, social development and self-advancement” (2016, p. 353). Wyness sees a clear tension between protection and agency noting that the “contemporary concern over child soldiers accentuates the former obscur- ing the different ways that children participate in and through military conflict. Despite the physical and emotional challenges that child soldiers face, they are still capable of ‘navigating’ war through the deployment of a tactical agency. In doing so, they contribute to their material and social sur- vival and demonstrate their capacity to take political action” (2016, p. 87). Copyright ©2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. This work may not be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means without express written permission of the publisher. Draft Proof - Do not copy, post, or distribute
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CHAPTER 11: Children, Social Problems, and Society 353 UNICEF workers Sharon Behn and Juliette Touma (2016) recently vis- ited Debaga Camp in northern Iraq where more than 16,000 children have been displaced from various areas in the region related to the ISIS resur- gence. Many of these children have lived under the so-called Islamic State and walked long hours with their families to reach safety. In the camp,
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