Through their global networks and experimental expertise TNCs have access to

Through their global networks and experimental

This preview shows page 88 - 90 out of 136 pages.

Through their global networks and experimental expertise, TNCs have access to knowledge, capital, and deployment expertise, which are in their inter-est to deploy as they secure their own place in the future low -carbon economy through technology leadership. Further, the slow pace of international climate change negotiations means that these firms are actively looking for policy- driven deployment markets for their technologies (which, for socio-economic reasons, are not ready for the market). This initial deployment is critical, both to secure expertise of the market and technology as well as to build a scale that lowers the cost of low-carbon technologies. The sectors of developing countries that are likely to require low-carbon technologies, such as transport, power, and industry, are generally late- comers to the global scene. The result is a lag in the technology capability and expertise of such firms compared to global cutting-edge firms. Further-more, the weak capabilities of the national innova-tion systems in which these firms are embedded are a major challenge to rapid improvement. While countries such as Brazil, China, and India have made significant progress in recent years, they con-tinue to lag well behind industrialised countries in indicators of technological/innovation capabilities and performance. 26 From a low-carbon transformation perspective, the firms, in their respective sectors, seek to leverage any deployment of technology within their home markets to build capacity for future exports to for- eign markets. At the same time, in some sectors such as electromobility, low-carbon technologies offer an opportunity for developing country firms to take a major leap toward becoming global lead-ers in the emerging low-carbon ecosystem (Box 10). To compensate for their relatively low technology competence, these firms have started to leverage their local linkages and build international knowl- edge linkages while at the same time lobbying their policy makers for local industry support mecha- nisms, both regulatory and incentive driven. 27 4.4 Technology transfer versus innovation cooperation As highlighted in the previous sections, the broad development, dissemination, and deployment of a variety of less GHG-intensive technologies are key prerequisites for global low-carbon develop- 80 GLOBELICS THEMATIC REVIEW
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Box 11. Climate technology and innovation centres The Climate Innovation Centres (CICs) and Cli- mate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) seek to encourage cross-border technology fl ows, foster interfirm linkages, and strengthen the absorptive capacity of the developing countries. While these measures to support capability-build- ing and deployment are essential, such institutional linkages should be synergetic with national policy frameworks in order to efficiently and effectively further low-carbon development in the developing countries.
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