Further, in places like Panjab University, inter-University collaboration with Universities abroad resulted in a detailed palaeo-anthropological study of the Siwalik region and the discovery of many fossils, some of whom, like the Gigantopithecus fossil, became very famous. It led to the Department becoming specialized in such work and much work was done in this region on Palaeo-anthropology by those from this University over the years. In spite of these influences from American cultural anthropologists, the influence of British anthropology on Indian anthropologists continued to be very important. A professional cadre of anthropologists was developing with a Ph.D. degree being very important. Influences from Redfield were coupled with those of Levi-Strauss, Dumont, Leach and Radcliffe-Brown. Books and articles increased tremendously and many publications of Indian anthropologists in foreign journals occurred. However, in following the West so assiduously, Indian anthropologists seem not to have followed a constructive trend in their own approaches to a logical conclusion. In 1952, Ghurye made a reference in Vienna to the mistrust of social workers and popular political leaders of anthropologists. According to D. N. Majumdar in 1956, Indian anthropologists had an inadequate knowledge of American anthropology. By 1953, attempts were being made in India to use anthropological knowledge to intervene, train, develop, and in other ways to help, the tribals. This was done through the setting up of the Tribal Research and Training Institutes all over India at the instance of the Commissioner for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes. Such institutes would conduct researches and their data would be used for all planning and welfare programmes. This has not really been done in thorough detail even now. This seems to have been due to the apathy of many government employees, their lack of autonomy and initiative, and the fear of annoying those in power that their present schemes may be wrong. Even while evaluating welfare schemes, such institutes have remained non-controversial in their approach. However, even after many
7 forays in the field of applied anthropology, few anthropologists were being consulted by the government for most plans and programmes. Perhaps, it is in this context that S. C. Dube commented on a cautionary note that, “There are obvious dangers in overselling applied social science and anthropology and in making high sounding but impossible claims as a science of human engineering” (Dube; 1958: 152 in Sachchidananda; 1972: 27). In studying culture change, Indian anthropologists have been involved in studies relating to the determination of whether the caste system is disintegrating or whether it has been strengthened since Independence. Studies have also been conducted on adult franchise, urbanization, industrialization and their effects on the caste system. With this there has been an emphasis on the nature of Indian unity and the characteristics of various categories of sub- nationalism. Finally, the role of the Indian social and religious traditions in economic
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