Dutch Process – treat natural cocoa with an alkali and convert it into a powder in which the acid has been neutralized Natural cocoa is much lighter in color than Dutch processed Acidity has been cut down and solubility increases In 1847, J.S. Fry introduced the first edible cocoa o Once cocoa butter was separated from the cocoa, Fry had the idea to blend to two together under controlled conditions Edible chocolate is cocoa powder & butter Switzerland produces milk chocolate o Daniel Peter (1876) had the idea of cutting down on bitterness of chocolate and adding milk to it Went to Henri Nestlé (who found a way to condense milk) White chocolate is essentially only made from cocoa butter Lindt developed a method by which the chocolate liquor would be stirred for a long period of time – “Conching” o Made the chocolate much smoother Toblerone – nougat added; shape is after the Matterhorn
Switzerland has the highest chocolate consumption in the world Video 4 Hershey (1903) found ways to lower cost of chocolate o 60 million kisses produced every day During WWII, chocolate was given to the soldiers because of its high caloric value and sugar o It would melt easily – American army asked Hershey to create a chocolate that would melt in the mouth and not in the hand Hershey’s “Tropical Chocolate” – “taste a little better than a boiled potato” because the army was concerned that the men were spending more time eating chocolate than fighting o American army turned to Mars company to make a better tasting chocolate Coat the chocolate in sugar coating – chocolate would melt but still be contained in the coating However, when very hot, the chocolate would expand and break the coating o Army went to Dr. Alfred Stern to find a way to keep the chocolate in the hard shell Had the idea of blending air into the chocolate before putting it into the coating As the chocolate would expand, it would crush the bubble of air and not the coating – M&M’s o From 1976 to 1987 there were no red M&M’s – people thought red dye #2 was carcinogenic; red dye #40 was actually used, which is not carcinogenic, but people were still skeptical Rolling Stone’s – only brown M&M’s Aerosmith – only green M&M’s Cherry Blossom – no cocoa butter o Invertase – cherry is packed into sugar and in the presence of Invertase, the sugar is converted into invert sugar (glucose + fructose) and a small amount of water Invert sugar is more soluble in water than sugar is, so after a while, the solid around the cherry melts Video 5 There is NO evidence that chocolate is associated with acne For those who are susceptible, chocolate may lead to heartburn o At basis of esophagus is a valve that prevents content from stomach from refluxing into the esophagus Chocolate relaxes the valve and makes it possible for stomach acid to come up GERD – Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disorder Chocolate is rich in sugar, which is the perfect food for bacteria (S. mutans) that converts it into lactic acid and then plaque
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