In some scenarios leaders find themselves second

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conclusion of the situation. In some scenarios, leaders find themselves second-guessing the decision which was made earlier. It is very wise to seek opinions from fellow peers on the decision about to be made and get the clear picture (Kallet, 2014) Facilitator's Guide to Participatory Decision-Making by Sam Kaner According to Kaner (2014), there are various dynamics involved in group decision- making process. The author depicts ways which a group makes a decision as a unit and possible shortcomings which can occur. In any group, two dynamics are used to come up with a decision which is divergent and convergent thinking. Divergent thinking involves members airing their points whereas convergent encompasses narrowing differences and finalizing the discussion. The discussion of any problem begins with members giving out proposals which are obvious solutions. If the problem can be solved easily, the members quickly close the discussion and implement the solution. In other instances, group members need to understand each other’s perspective before diving into the dynamic stage of convergent thinking. Kaner (2014) describes the stage between divergent and convergent thinking as the “groan zone’. The “groan zone” stage particularly determines the success of the group in solving the problem at hand. Discomfort, miscommunication and misunderstanding are bound to be part and parcel of the “groan zone”, and it is embarrassing for a group of high-minded individuals to abandon the problem at this stage. Therefore, group members should strive to ensure such discrepancies can be dealt with.
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DECISION MAKING 6 The success of any problem solving is determined by how members can brainstorm and come up with the best solution. Kaner (2014) suggests that there are four core values needed in any participatory decision-making process which include “full participation, mutual understanding, inclusive solutions and shared responsibility”. Full participation is whereby members are encouraged and entitled to share ideas which they may have in mind. Moreover, valuing every idea strengthens the group, and the members are able to be involved when a difficult problem arises. Mutual understanding helps the group to reach an agreement by respecting the legitimacy of everyone’s idea thus members are able to look at the solution offered from a different point of view. Inclusive solution is whereby everyone’s opinions are integrated to come up with a final wise alternative. Shared responsibility involves the members committing themselves to ensuring that the implementation of the solution goes smoothly as planned. Participatory decision making has its advantages such as an increase in reasoning power, more confidence, better communication skills, good quality ideas, wiser decisions etc. (Kaner, 2014). Creating an environment for members to brainstorm and come up with a wise solution is very important. According to Kaner (2014), various aspects need to be put in mind when facilitating an open discussion. In most open discussions, the leader usually has a daunting task of controlling who should speak and for how long. In regard, the leader must first create an easy way of directing traffic by use of the stacking method. Stacking involves using a systematic way
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