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References:Wicks-Nelson, R. & Israel, A.C. (2013). Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology with DSM 5 Update. Boston: PearsonEducation, Inc.Question 32 of 385.0 PointsSummarize four patterns of infant-caretaker attachment and their relationship to later adjustment. Be specific.Four patterns of infant-caretaker attachment are secure attachment, insecure attachment avoidant type, insecure attachmentresistant type, and disorganized/disoriented attachment. Infants that display secure attachment to caregivers will seek contact withthat caregiver when distressed by caregiver separation. As a securely attached infant, as they age will display adaptive behaviorsuch as competence and positive peer interactions. Insecure attachment avoidant type infants display less signs of distress andignore their caregiver and insecure attachment resistant type infants display distress and ineffectively make attempts to seekcontact with their caregiver. Infants with disorganized/disoriented attachment display behaviors that are contradictory such as bothseeking and avoiding their caregiver. These infants are also display expressions that are undirected, misdirected and interrupted. Asinfants with both insecure attachment and more with disorganized/disoriented attachment grow to have maladaptive behaviorssuch as aggression, anxiety, and academic deficits.
such as aggression, anxiety, and academic deficits. References:Wicks-Nelson, R. & Israel, A.C. (2013). Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology with DSM 5 Update. Boston: Pearson Education,Inc.Question 33 of 385.0 PointsContrast the authoritative, authoritarian, neglectful, and indulgent/permissive styles of parenting and the child characteristicsassociated with each style.The different parenting styles are authoritative, authoritarian, neglectful, and indulgent/permissive. Authoritative parentinginvolves the use of rules because the parents assume full control expecting children to follow these rules and follow through withconsequences. The parents are often warm, accepting, and receptive to their children’s needs. Children of authoritative parents aretypically independent, self confident, social and socially responsible. Authoritarian parenting style is when parents provide strictrules that are not to be challenged. With this style although it promotes child independence and individuality parents are cold totheir children. With the neglectful parenting style the emotional needs of the child are often overlooked and parents are uninvolvedwith their children. Parents with indulgent/permissive style of parenting often do not set rules and boundaries for children allowingthem to regulate their own behavior and impulses. Children of authoritarian, neglectful, and indulgent/permissive styles ofparenting are typically aggressive, withdrawn, dependent, irresponsible and have low self esteem. They also demonstrate antisocialbehavior, school issues and anxiety. References:Wicks-Nelson, R. & Israel, A.C. (2013). Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology with DSM 5 Update. Boston: Pearson Education,Inc.