body displays (hair color, style), clothing and accessories- can signal authority, belonging Oculesics - eye contact/gaze- avoidance often taken as dishonesty, insincerity, eye contact can signal confidence, immediacy, perception of attractiveness Kinesics - movement and gestures, illustrators- emphasis- waving arms, emblems- specific gestures has a beginning and end and has a dictionary meaning (thumbs up), affect displays- feeling-using nonverbal (jumping up and down when team wins), adapters- least consciously done (twilling hair when nervous) Proxemics - space, distance, territory, interpersonal distances- we allow depending on relationship/situation- claiming our space- ex. Putting stuff on library table Chronemics -time-when you arrive at the party shows how much you care, how long you go without talking to someone, how quick you call back Haptics - touch- positive affect- hug, pat on shoulder, control- physical aggression(grabbing wrist), ritual- handshake, kiss on cheek POST-MIDTERM TOPICS Intercultural Communication Lecture: Differences; dimensions (indiv/collectivism, hi/lo context, etc.); solutions (trad view of contact/intercultural knowledge vs. understanding outgroup biases, history, identity, etc). Individualism -emphasize individual goals, value individual competition, self esteem, self reliance, independence, privacy, collectivism - emphasize group goals, value competition between groups, obligations/loyalty to group, social role/position, Low context cultures - only minimal attention to context, verbal directness important (U.S.- give clear instructions what to do), understatement, low intensity, High context cultures - contextual cues critical for understanding, nonverbal with indirectness, hyperbole, high intensity, traditional solution- have intercultural knowledge, have lots of contact, accommodate a bit , outgroup biases- when positive, external atrribution, when negative- internal attribution Reading: O&W Ch 3: Lec overlap; plus more dimensions of culture (uncertainty, power distance, etc.); social identity; intercultural challenges (ethnocentrism, etc.) Uncertainity avoidance- all cultures, adapt behaviors in order to reduce uncertainty and risk, cultures that are more anxious about the unknown are high uncertainty avoidance cultures- their behaviors are adapted to minimize risk and uncertainty, low is more
tolerant, masculine culture- acheivment culture- places value on assertiveness, acheivment, ambition and competitiveness-clearer distinctions between sexes , feminine culture- nurturing cultures- place value on relationships and quality of life, affection, friendliness and social support between people , power distance - way in which a culture accepts and expects the division of power among individuals, high power- people with less power accept their low position as a fact of life and feel anxiety when communicating with those with higher status, low power- tolerate less difference in power and communicate with those higher in status with less anxiety, monochromic cultures- treat time as a limited resource- commodity that can be saved or wasted- use time to structure activities
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- Fall '07