The remaining questions will be extensions

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The remaining questions will be extensions, applications or speculation questions. The answers for these questions will require students to reflect, think, speculate and apply their knowledge. The answers for these questions will NOT be found in the textbook. In some cases, a definitive answer is not the point of the question, but rather that the student state and defend their ideas supported by their evidence or reasoning. Students should not focus on what is the “right answer” on these types of questions.
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Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of Life Essential Knowledge Chapters/Section s Illustrative Examples Covered 1.a.1 natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution. 22.2 23.2 - Graphical analysis of allele frequencies in a population - Application of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation 1.a.2 Natural selection acts on phenotypic variations in populations. 23.1, 23.4 - Peppered moth - Sickle cell Anemia - Pesticide resistance in insects - Artificial selection - Antibiotic resistance - Loss of genetic diversity in monoculture 1.a.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by random processes. 23.3 - Allele loss by genetic drift, Founders Effect and Bottlenecking 1.a.4 Biological evolution is supported by scientific evidence from many disciplines including mathematics. 22.3 25.2 - Field observations - Fossil record - Homology and Analogy - Biogeography - Analysis of phylogenetic trees - Construction of phylogenetic trees based on sequence data 1.b.1 Organisms share many conserved core processes and features that evolved and are widely distributed among organisms today. 25.1, 25.3 - Cytoskeleton similarities - Membrane-bound organelles (mitochondria and/or chloroplasts) - Linear chromosomes - Universal genetic code 1.b.2 Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are graphical representations (models) of evolutionary history that can be tested. 26.1 - 26.3 - Number of heart chambers in animals - Opposable thumbs - Absence of legs in some sea mammals 1.c.1 Speciation and extinction have occurred throughout the Earth’s history. 24.3, 24.4, 25.4 - Five major extinction events - Human impact on ecosystems and species extinction rates 1.c.2 Speciation may occur when two populations become reproductively isolated from each other. 24.1 - Galapagos fauna examples - African violet examples - Salamander examples 1.c.3 Populations of organisms continue to evolve. 24.2, 44.1 - Chemical resistance in many species - Observed directional phenotypic change in a population (Grants study) - A eukaryotic example that describes evolution of a structure or process. 1.d.1 There are several hypothesis about the natural origin of life on Earth, each with supporting scientific evidence. 4.1 25.1, 25.3 - Abiogenesis of Life - Miller and Urey experiments - Volcanic vents - Comets and meteors 1.d.2 Scientific evidences from many disciplines supports models of the origin of life. 25.1 26.6 - Abiogenesis of Life - Miller and Urey experiments - Volcanic vents
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Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.
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