is need of a "divine law". And since the law applies to many complicated relations, the
of the human law must be laid down.
The divine law consists of an old and a new. In so far as the old divine law contains the moral law of nature it is
universally valid; what there is in it, however, beyond this is valid only for the Jews. The new law is "primarily
grace itself" and so a "law given within", "a gift superadded to nature by grace", but not a "written law". In this
sense, as sacramental grace, the new law justifies. It contains, however, an "ordering" of external and internal
conduct, and so regarded is, as a matter of course, identical with both the old law and the law of nature. The
) show how one may attain the end "better and more expediently" by full
renunciation of worldly goods.
Since man is sinner and creature, he needs grace to reach the final end. The "first cause" alone is able to reclaim
him to the "final end". This is true after the fall, although it was needful before. Grace is, on one side, "the free
act of God", and, on the other side, the effect of this act, the
which is instilled into the "essence of the soul", "a certain gift of disposition, something supernatural proceeding
from God into man". Grace is a supernatural ethical character created in man by God, which comprises in itself
all good, both faith and love.
Justification by grace comprises four elements: "the infusion of grace, the influencing of free will toward God
through faith, the influencing of free will respecting sin, and the remission of sins". It is a "transmutation of the
human soul", and takes place "instantaneously". A creative act of God enters, which, however, executes itself as
a spiritual motive in a psychological form corresponding to the nature of man. Semipelagian tendencies are far
removed from Aquinas. In that man is created anew he believes and loves, and now sin is forgiven. Then begins
good conduct; grace is the "beginning of meritorious works". Aquinas conceives of merit in the Augustinian
sense: God gives the reward for that toward which he himself gives the power. Man can never of himself