DSST Business Ethics and Society-Study Guide Entire Guide 1 2 and 3

Drug testing is not required under the drug free

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Drug testing is not required under the Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988. The majority of employers across the United States are not required to test, and many state and local governments have statutes that limit or prohibit workplace testing, unless required by state or federal regulations for certain jobs. On the other hand, most private employers have the right to test for a wide variety of substances. Random drug testing is permitted in some industries, including the transportation industry. Similarly, employees engaged in safety- sensitive or security-sensitive jobs (nuclear reactor workers, refinery workers, peace officers, and customs agents, for example) may be subjected to random testing. Conflict of interest ( COI ) Occurs when an individual or organization is involved in multiple interests, one of which could possibly corrupt the motivation for an act in the other. A conflict of interest can only exist if a person or testimony is entrusted with some impartiality; a modicum of trust is necessary to create it. The presence of a COI is independent from the execution of impropriety. The occupations where a COI is most likely to be encountered include: policeman, lawyer, insurance adjuster, politician, engineer, executive, director of a corporation, medical research scientist, physician, writer, or editor. In short—any entrusted individual or organization. More generally, conflicts of interest can be defined as any situation in which an individual or corporation (either private or governmental) is in a position to exploit a professional or official capacity in some way for their personal or corporate benefit. Depending upon the law or rules related to a particular organization, the existence of a COI may not, in and of itself, be evidence of wrongdoing. In fact, for many professionals, it is virtually impossible to avoid having conflicts of interest from time to time. A COI can, however, become a legal matter for example when an individual tries (and/or succeeds in) influencing the outcome of a decision, for personal benefit. OCI, or Organizational Conflict of Interest An organizational COI, or OCI, may exist in the same way as described above, in the realm of the private sector providing services to the Government, where a corporation provides two types of services to the Government that have conflicting interest or appear objectionable (ie: manufacturing parts and then participating on a selection committee comparing parts manufacturers). Corporations may develop simple or complex systems to mitigate the risk or perceived risk of a COI. These risks are typically evaluated by a Governmental Office to determine whether the risks pose a substantial advantage to the private organization over the competition or will decrease the overall competitiveness in the bidding process.
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