064 is not less than the alpha level of 05 Table 3 shows the adjusted means for

# 064 is not less than the alpha level of 05 table 3

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illustrates, the Sig value .064 is not less than the alpha level of .05. Table 3 shows the adjusted means for the student’s posttest scores. The adjusted means using the covariate (pretest scores) provides a control group value of 73.19 and a treatment group value of 86.50. The adjusted mean for each of the groups was very close to each groups posttest mean (74.57 and 85.48 respectively). The observed mean for each groups pretest and posttest is displayed in Table 4 labeled “Descriptive Statistics”. Table 2 Analysis of Covariance for Effect of 1:1 Devices on Student Posttest Performance Source SS df MS F P Pretest 15654.59 1 15654.59 24.04 .000 Group 2329.11 1 2329.11 3.58 .064 Error 33208.80 51 651.15 Total 403275.00 54 a. R Squared = .231 (Adjusted R Squared = .190)
MOBILE DEVICE IMPACT ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE 26 Table 3 Adjusted Means for Effect of 1:1 Devices on Student Posttest Performance Group Adjusted Std Error 95% Confidence Interval Mean Lower Bound Upper Bound Control 73.19 5.33 62.49 83.89 Treatment 86.50 4.59 77.29 95.71 Table 4 Descriptive Statistics Group Pretest Observed Mean Posttest Observed Mean Control 13.48 74.57 Treatment 12.26 85.48 Discussion The researcher analyzed the previously discussed data to come to several conclusions and explanations of the results. The next sections discuss those conclusions including the study’s limitations, delimitations, validity, and future implications. Summary The focus of this study was to determine if a 1:1 computing solution with mobile devices would have an impact on student’s posttest scores in an agriscience classroom. A review of existing literature was conducted in order to develop an understanding of the implications of 1:1 computing in an educational setting. From that literature review it became apparent to the researcher that a number of factors can affect the impact of 1:1 solutions with varying results. Armed with this information the researcher designed a pretest posttest protocol that spanned a four week period and was conducted on two intact classes. The pretest and posttest were identical and required students to identify forty floriculture and landscape plants. A random selection from a hat determined which class would be the control group and which class would receive the treatment. The treatment group was provided mobile devices in order to complete a
MOBILE DEVICE IMPACT ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE 27 digital leaf notebook for purposes of learning how to identify floriculture and landscape plants, while the control group used the traditional method of creating a plant sample notebook. The pretest was used as a covariant in order to control any variations in student pretest measurements. The results of the pretest and posttest were reported and analyzed using the SPSS program. The findings suggested that the treatment group did not score higher on the posttest than the control group, though there was some indication that the data was trending towards high scores for the treatment group. The proposed research question was: What is the difference between 1:1 computing and traditional instruction on plant identification posttest scores in a rural high school agricultural science classroom? The lack of a statistically significant increase in

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