Results to the fallacy of the undistributed middle

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results to the fallacy of the undistributed middle term or the fallacy of the undistributed middle. e.g. All human beings are clever beings .All dogs are clever beings All dogs are human beings. In the above example, the middle term 'clever beings' is not distributed. Though in the first premise it is clear that all human beings are clever beings, it does not follow that all clever beings are human beings, reference is made to only a part of the class of clever beings who are human beings and that is all the same way, although it is clear that all dobs are clever beings,, it does not follow that all clever beings are dogs, in this circumstances the relationship between dogs and human beings is not certainly implied which make any conclusion with regard to how the two terms relate to each other logically impossible; thus rendering any conclusion uncertain. This makes the argument deductively invalid. Rule 2. In any valid categorical syllogism, no term may increase its distribution i.e. no term should move from being undistributed in the premises to being distributed in the conclusion. The rationale of this rule is that one cannot validly argue moving from some members of a class to all members of the class. Rather valid movement may be from all to some i.e. that since all are, some are. When this rule is violated the corresponding fallacy is the illicit process of the major term or minor term depending on the affected or relevant term which has a double status with regard to its distribution in the same argument. e.g. All trees and plants No vegetables are trees No vegetables are plants _______________________ Illicit process Of the major Term. INVALID In the above example, 'plants' is the major term. It is undistributed in the first premise but it is distributed in the conclusion. This is invalid. Rule 3. No valid categorically syllogism can have two negative premises. This is because negative premises are by nature exclusionary such that they deny class inclusion (separate minor from major term) either wholly or partially and that is all. This means that there is no link that is stated of the major and minor premises since all that is asserted is the exclusion of one class from another either in part or in whole. Concluding from the premises becomes logically impossible. e.g. No cats are dogs No cows are dogs Some cows are cats _________________ INVALID. Fallacy of Exclusive premises. The corresponding fallacy is the fallacy of exclusion premises. Rule 4. In any6 valid categorical syllogism, if a premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative. This is because a negative premise asserts and implies class exclusion such
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whatever conclusion is drawn must assert class exclusion also in part or in whole, as the case may be. e.g. All head-hunters are primitives Some louderners are head-hunters Some loudeners are head-hunters.
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