O nucleotides energy storage like atp all have the

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o Nucleotides: energy storage like ATP All have the same basic structure Composed of a five carbon sugar, one or more phosphate groups and a nitrogenous base Nitrogenous bases fall into two categories Pyrimidine: one carbon ring (cytosine (C) and thymine (T) in DNA) Purine: two carbon rings (guanine (G) and adenine (A) in DNA) o It’s important to know that pyrimidines bind with pyrimidines and purines bind with purines Depending on DNA or RNA, you are going to have a carbohydrate that is either deoxyribose (DNA) or ribose (RNA). Ribose has an oxygen and deoxyribose doesn’t Three functional types Cellular energy exchange (ATP) o Primary energy source for cells Intracellular signaling (Cyclic AMP) Storage and expression of genetic information. These are polymers of nucleotides called nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) DNA structure A double helix with bases that project inward and form bonds with bases on the other strand Sugar phosphate backbone = outer cover of a book; provides structure Nitrogenous bases = pages of the book where information is contained; G and C; A and T What do cells do? - Table 2.2 o Plasma membrane: maintains boundary to cell and integrity of cell structure; embedded proteins serve multiple - Cells have diverse structures and functions o Neurons o Epithelial cells o Muscle cells - What is a gene? o A gene is a length of DNA that codes for a specific protein o Chromosomes are made up of DNA and protein; little stretches of DNA that codes for proteins are called genes
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10 Genes > DNA > chromosomes - Gene expression o Converting DNA into proteins Transcription: DNA > RNA, occurs in nucleus RNA polymerase binds to promoter sequence RNA polymerase then unzips DNA, separates double helix Free ribonucleotides bid complimentary bases on DNA sense strand o Basically reads the DNA RNA polymerase moves down DNA and new RNA molecules is synthesized Product = pre-mRNA transcript o Needs to be modified before it exits the nucleus Double helix zips back together and waits for transcription to happen again Genes o The Human Genome Project revealed that most of the DNA of humans does not encode mRNAs or any other RNA. Appears to serve no purpose whatsoever in our life cycle Initially proposed by the NIH James Watson (discovered DNA double helix) Gregg Ventor project: sequenced 90% of the genome in a day o Accounts for an astonishing ~98.5% of human chromosomal DNA o These non-coding regions are similar in humans, but not identical. Accounts for your DNA fingerprint. Called mini-satellite sequences Post-transcriptional processing Pre-mRNA > mRNA o Introns are removed; exons are kept and exist the nucleus o CAP is added to 5’ end of pre-mRNA o Poly-A tail is added to 3’ end of pre-mRNA Translation: RNA > protein, occurs in cytoplasm Three types of RNA o mRNA (messenger RNA): carries genetic code out of nucleus o rRNA (ribosomal RNA): forms RNA component of ribosomes, allows protein assembly o
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