- In the context of human digestion, what is the main difference between starch and cellulose?Synthesis and Breakdown of Saccharides- What is condensation and hydrolysis?- What is the role of water in each of these processes?Lipids- Describe lipids.- What does it mean when a molecules is described as amphipathic?- What does it mean when the terms polar or nonpolar are used to describe a molecule?Triglycerides- Triglycerides are what we typically call what?- What acts as the backbone in a triglyceride and what makes up the attached carbon chains?- What do the terms saturated and unsaturated mean when referring to fatty acids?- What do the terms cis and trans mean in terms of the origins of the fatty acids and any health implications?- What does it mean when triglycerides and fatty acids are described as nonpolar?Phospholipids- What is a phospholipid?- How many fatty acids does it have?- Which part of the phospholipid is polar and which is non-polar?- How do amphipathic phospholipids react in water?- How does the phospholipid bilayer form and what are micelles? (illustration on page 23)- What are surfactants and what is their role in biological structures?- Eicosanoids- What is the description and function of the eiconsanoids?Steroids- What is the structure of a steroid?- Are they amphipathic?- What is the most common steroid and where is it an important component and in what does it act a precursor?
Amino Acids and Proteins- What are proteins and what are the protein's building blocks?- Describe an amino acid.- What makes one amino acid different from another?- How many different amino acids are there?- What is the bond that attaches one amino acid to another amino acid during the building of a protein and what specific parts of the amino acids attach to each other?- Polymers of amino acids are called what?- What is the difference between a peptide and a protein?- What is a protein's conformation responsible for?- Describe the four different levels of protein structure.- What is the difference in function between fibrous and globular proteins?- What is the function of proteins as chemical messengers, receptors, carrier proteins, and enzymes?- What are glycoproteins and lipoproteins?Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids- What is the role of a nucleotide?- What is the structure of a nucleotide?- What are the two classes of nitrogenous bases in nucleotides?- What is the difference between pyrimidines and purines and each class includes which bases?- What is the role of ATP?- Polymers of nucleotides include what structures that function in the storage and expression of genetic material?- Where is DNA and RNA found in the cell?- What bases are found in DNA and what bases in RNA?- What carbohydrate is found in DNA and what in RNA?- What is the law of complementary base pairing and which bases in DNA have 3 hydrogen bonds between them and which form 2 hydrogen bonds?- Although RNA is single stranded (DNA double stranded), it still follows the law of complementary base pairing when RNA is synthesized from DNA. What paired base bonds form in them?- Cell Structure, 2.2page 29- What is the basic unit of life?- Each cell is bounded by what?- What are the two main components found in a eukaryotic cell?
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