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City police used dogs and fire hoses to disperse the crowds. Images of the students under attack shocked the country. Bevel, King, and other civil rights leaders knew they needed to do something big, something that would force the federal government to stop the violence.Freedom SummerSNCC, CORE, SCLC, and NAACPConstitutional rights: A drive to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi to prepare for the presidential election that year.Selma March and Bloody SundayMLK, and other groupsProtests: Dr. King organized a similar voting drive in Selma, Alabama. The local sheriff prevented registrations, and a young African American was murdered in a nearby town, prompting MLK to call for a march to the state capital of Montgomery. The first day of the march, March 7, 1965, is known as "Bloody Sunday" for the violence that ensued. The march was intended to be a peaceful call for the enforcement of the 15th Amendment—the right to vote for all American citizens regardless of race or color.But, police, as well as civilians, gathered to stop the march, beating marchers and turning fire hoses on them.7.03 Minority RightsThe Big IdeasHow were the Civil Rights Movement and other social movements of the 1960s similar?The Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s is famous for its sit-ins, boycotts, and marches. Other social movements of the era used these strategies as well. Women marched in Washington, D.C., and other cities for equal rights. Native Americans occupied property they argued was theirs by law andtreaty. Hispanic American farmers used strikes and boycotts to protest working conditions and low pay.How were women viewed by most of society in the 1950s? How did this change in the 1960s?In the 1950s, the prevailing view was that a woman's place was at home, rearing children and tending to her husband. Even female college graduates were often expected to make "home" their career. In 1960, only 17 of the 535 members of Congress were women. Television, magazines, and other cultural media showed women as happiest when taking care of their families and homes. Working women were
often portrayed as unhappy and even foolish. All of this began to change in the 1960s with the start of Feminism.What was the Equal Rights Amendment? What happened to it?Equal Rights Amendment, or ERA, to the Constitution. The ERA originated just a few years after the passage of women's suffrage and was submitted often to Congress, where it finally passed in 1972. It reads: "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Not all women's rights activists supported the ERA, fearing that its ratification would undermine laws that aimed at protecting women. Congress finally passed the ERA thanks to the efforts of NOW and other women's rights activists, including Gloria Steinem. However, the amendment cannot become an official part of the Constitution unless at least three-quarters of the states ratify it.