g Dant et al 2013 Rauch Frese 2007a Soontiens Lacroix 2009 Weaven Grace Manning

G dant et al 2013 rauch frese 2007a soontiens lacroix

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particular are likely to be important factors in their business success (e.g. Dant et al ., 2013; Rauch & Frese, 2007a; Soontiens & Lacroix, 2009; Weaven, Grace, & Manning, 2009). To underscore the importance of appropriate attitude and skills in franchisees’ success, the International Franchise Association Code of Ethics requires that franchisees should only be selected after reasonable investigation and confirmation that they possess the basic skills, attitudes and personal characteristics to conduct the business of the particular system (International Franchise Association, 2016). The key attitude and skill factors in the adapted model include franchisees motivation & hard work, management & marketing skills and prior experience. Each of these along with empirical findings on their relevance to franchisees’ business performance is thus discussed. 2.3.2.3.2.1 Motivation & Hard work Motivation & hard work is the first attitude and skill factor identified as having the potential to influence their business performance. A large number of empirical studies have concluded that motivation and hard work matter for franchisees success (Frazer et al ., 2007; Frazer &
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Winzar, 2005; Merrilees & Frazer, 2006; Parsa et al ., 2005; Watson, 2008). Notwithstanding the seeming conclusive findings on the issue of motivation & hard work, this study sought to answer the call of scholars (e.g. Dant et al , 2013; Nijmeijer et al , 2014) to confirm the relevance of literature-identified personality attitudes of franchisees in other contexts. This factor is considered for further empirical confirmation in Nigeria. 2.3.2.3.2.2 Management & Marketing Skills In terms of excellent management & marketing skills , empirical findings have shown that franchisees’ business performance improve when they possess these skills (Chien, 2014; Clarkin, 2008; Jiang et al ., 2014; Merrilees & Frazer, 2006). And form the perspective of franchise practitioners, one of the most important factors that lead to franchisees success is sales and marketing skills (Hancock, 2015; Nguyen, 2015).
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