In operant conditioning behaviors are controlled by

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In operant conditioning, behaviors are controlled by consequences that follow behavior, rather than precede it.
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esult esult Increase Decrease behavior/response behavior/response Apply Stimulus (Positive) Reinforcement (Positive) Punishment Remove Stimulus Negative Reinforcement Negative Punishment
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Shaping – reinforcement of successive approximation to desired behavior. Shaping needed to learn complex tasks in which the acquisition of the basic components of the task are reinforced. This is followed by reinforcement of the acquisition of more complex behaviors as more components are added.
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Operant Conditioning in Operant Conditioning in Psychopathology Psychopathology Maladaptive behaviors linked to environmental reinforcers Positive: Pleasurable, peak feelings (e.g., drug use) Negative: Escape/ avoidance (e.g., procrastination) Early behaviorists saw “inner life” as unscientific. Today, behavioral therapists acknowledge that internal mental life affects acquisition and treatment of disorders.
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The Observational Learning Model The Observational Learning Model Behaviors are acquired by watching someone else perform those behaviors. Modeling: Learning by observing models and later imitating them (also called vicarious conditioning)
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Observational Learning in Observational Learning in Psychopathology Psychopathology Four effects of observational learning: New behaviors may be acquired by watching a model. A model may elicit behaviors in an observer by providing cues. Behaviors formerly inhibited due to negative reactions may occur after observing a model. If observer sees a behavior by a model result in aversive consequences, the behavior may become inhibited.
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How Powerful Are Thoughts in How Powerful Are Thoughts in Causing Mental Disorders? Causing Mental Disorders? Cognitive Models : Conscious thought mediates or modifies a person’s emotional state and/or behavior in response to a stimulus Schemas : Sets of underlying assumptions influenced by experiences, values, and perceived capabilities
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Irrational/Maladaptive Assumptions Irrational/Maladaptive Assumptions and Thoughts and Thoughts Aaron Beck: People engage in rigid, inflexible, and automatic interpretations of events. Cognitive content is organized along three levels: Most accessible and least stable cognitions; voluntary thoughts Automatic thoughts that occur spontaneously; triggered by circumstances Underlying assumptions about oneself and one’s world
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Irrational/Maladaptive Assumptions Irrational/Maladaptive Assumptions and Thoughts and Thoughts (cont’d) (cont’d) Albert Ellis: Psychological problems produced by irrational thought patterns stemming individual’s belief system Unpleasant emotional responses result from one’s unrealistic and irrational thoughts about an event, not the event itself. Irrational thinking operates from dogmatic, absolutist “shoulds,” “musts,” and “oughts” that cause human misery as “musturbatory activities.”
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Figure 2.9: Ellis’s A-B-C- Theory of Figure 2.9: Ellis’s A-B-C- Theory of Personality Personality
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Cognitive Approaches to Therapy Cognitive Approaches to Therapy
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