Fixed: every 7 days comes the mail Ex. Varied: every several weeks (1, 2, 3) comes the mail Extinction, spontaneous recovery & generalization can occur
Exam 1 Behaviorism Behaviorist approach - a theoretical perspective that focuses only on objective, observable reactions. Behaviorism emphasizes the environmental stimuli that determine behavior. It is a function of: x Rewards/punishment x Passive learning (observe) x Repetition x Stimuli-------Response (involuntary) x Learning incremental, one at a time x Trial and error, like riding a bike x Role of Reward: No reward; No learning Cognitive Cognitive approach - a theoretical orientation that emphasizes peoples’ knowledge and their mental processes x Learning is an active process; think/reason/problem solve x Learner actively engages the perceptual world x Learning is sudden x Insightful------gain some understanding x All or none---- know or you don’t , no reward for being close x Role of reward: Motivation Gestalt Psychology The whole is greater than the sum of its parts Founders : Max Wertheimer , Kurt Koffka , Wolfgang Kohler Phi phenomenon - induced motion; perception of motion when none exists Necker cube- perceiving depth and motion when it’s a flat picture! Contextual determinants - see different length Laws of perceptual organization Law of Pragnanz - reduce the perceptual field to its most simplest form
Exam 1 Figure-ground - perceptual field is broken down to 2 components: 1) focus on the figure 2) perceive the ground which is all the other information around the figure that give definition and meaning to it Figure - in Gestalt psychology, when two areas share a common boundary, the figure has a distinct shape with clearly defined edges. In contrast, the Ground forms the background In this Figure ground example, one tends to focus on the middle objects whose edges r defined, forgetting the ground which in this case makes two facing faces Law of proximity - tend to group perceptual field on nearness or location (distance) Law of similarity - group things based on their similarity, share something in common
Exam 1 Law of closure - tend to group perceptual field to completion, tend to complete incomplete figures, and close opened objects Emergent property - perceptual experience where you can’t identify the pieces that make it up. Ex : can’t see the elements that make up green (blue and yellow) Factors contributing to the study of Cognitive psychology -Behaviorism - its popularity went down -Noam Chomsky - Language Acquisition Device- all born and prewired for language -Study of memory -Go deeper into how info is represented and encoded in memory - Jean Piaget’s theories of cognitive development - different age groups have different abilities to do different tasks -Information processing model -comparing human thinking to computer operating -Technological advances - ability to measure brain activity – EEG, MRI
Exam 1 Recurring Themes in Cognitive Psychology x Cognitive processes are active - not passive o Anytime we learn it has to do with a stimulus that promotes action and is either rewarded or punished x
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