was to help call public attention to the violation of treaty rights by the federal and state governments and to the resulting poverty of the Native Americans. Songs and Writings Like many Native Americans, the Anishinabe are known for their self-expression in songs and chants. The following is the traditional love song of an Anishinabe girl: Oh, I am thinking Oh, I am thinking I have found my lover Oh, I think it is so As a married woman and a mother, she might sing the following cradle song: Who is this? Who is this? Giving light on top of my lodge? It is, I, the little owl, coming, It is I, the little owl, coming, Down! Down! The modern writer Louise Erdrich, an Anishinabe of North Dakota, has continued this tradition of self-expression through novel-writing, including her first two books Love Medicine (1984) and The Beet Queen (1986). Gerald Vizenor, another Anishinabe author, has written The Heirs of Columbus (1991), Manifest Manners: Narratives on Postindian Survivance (1999), and numerous works about Native American literature. Another Anishinabe writer, Winona LaDuke of Minnesota, author of the novel Last Standing Woman (1997), is also a political activist and run for U.S. vice president on the Green Party ticket in 1996 and 2000. In 2004, she published Four Souls . Traditional and Modern Ways of Life Nowadays, the still-populous Anishinabe live on reservations in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, North Dakota, Montana, Ontario, and Manitoba, as well as in cities in the Midwest and central Canada. Some tribal members maintain close to a traditional way of life, with hunting and fishing and/or the making of traditional arts and crafts providing primary income. Others have adapted to mainstream, non-Indian culture. Some Anishinabe groups have increased
tribal revenue through the operation of casinos. In 2004, the Saginaw Chippewa Tribe of Michigan opened a cultural center, the Ziibiwing Center of Anishinabe Culture and Lifeways, which maintains an exhibit on Anishinabe history, including important tribal documents.
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- Fall '15
- History, Native Americans in the United States, Wounded Knee Massacre, Anishinabe