Multiple heating and cooling cycles without altering

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multiple heating and cooling cycles without altering molecular structure 2. Thermosetting polymers - molecules chemically transform into a rigid structure – cannot reheat 3. Elastomers - shows significant elastic behavior
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4. Composites Material consisting of two or more phases that are processed separately and then bonded together to achieve properties superior to its constituents Phase - homogeneous mass of material, such as grains of identical unit cell structure in a solid metal Usual structure consists of particles or fibers of one phase mixed in a second phase Properties depend on components, physical shapes of components, and the way they are combined to form the final material
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Manufacturing Processes Two basic types: 1. Processing operations - transform a work material from one state of completion to a more advanced state Operations that change the geometry, properties, or appearance of the starting material 2. Assembly operations - join two or more components to create a new entity
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Processing Operations Alters a material’s shape, physical properties, or appearance in order to add value Three categories of processing operations: 1. Shaping operations - alter the geometry of the starting work material 2. Property-enhancing operations - improve physical properties of the material without changing its shape, e.g.. Heat treatment of metals and glasses; sintering of powdered metals and ceramics 3. Surface processing operations - performed to clean, treat, coat, or deposit material onto the exterior surface of the work. (e.g. Cleaning; surface treatments like sand blasting; coating and thin film deposition)
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How do you change/alter the shape/dimension of a material? Shaping operations
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Shaping Processes – Four Categories 1. Solidification processes - starting material is a heated liquid or semifluid 2. Particulate processing - starting material consists of powders 3. Deformation processes - starting material is a ductile solid (commonly metal) 4. Material removal processes - starting material is a ductile or brittle solid
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Solidification Processes Starting material is heated sufficiently to transform it into a liquid or highly plastic state Casting process at left and casting product at right
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Particulate Processing (1) Starting materials are metal or ceramic powders, (2) pressed and (3) sintered
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Deformation Processes Starting workpart is shaped by application of forces that exceed the yield strength of the material Examples: (a) forging and (b) extrusion
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Deformation Processes Rolling (illustration)
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Deformation Processes Forging (illustrations)
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Material Removal Processes Excess material removed from the starting piece so what remains is the desired geometry Examples: (a) turning, (b) drilling, and (c) milling
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Cutting and Machining (illus)
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Metal chips fly in a high speed turning operation performed on a computer numerical control turning center (photo courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron).
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Property-Enhancing Processes Processes that improve mechanical or physical properties of work material Examples: Heat treatment of metals and glasses Sintering of powdered metals and ceramics Part shape is not altered, except unintentionally Example: unintentional warping of a heat treated part
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  • Spring '13
  • Al-Garni
  •  Manufacturing, MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES, assembly operations, material removal processes, production cycle time

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