ex: Catholic church and Henry VIII ex: royaltyex: men can generally divorce more easily than women "I divorce"ex: what about U.S. today?Good Housekeeping 1989= 12% chance that divorced woman over 35 will findnew husband within 2 years, 0% chance that lonely women over 35 will renew their subscription!! As a general rule, extended families try harder to keep marriages intact and toreplace lost partners Marriage as part of a social networkExtensive kin as a means of *risk aversionIn 1996 U.S. achieved its 100 millionth household, doubled in <40 years22
*Demography= the categorical description of a populationMeasures: fertility, mortality, migration, age, sex, religion, economic status, etc.. draw some charts, discussTotal human population reached 2 millionin >200,000 yearsOct 1999, reached 6 billion, i.e. 6,000 million, in about 10,000 years!! Paul Ehrlich..2150 one person per square yard, 2350 people outweigh the earth, 2500 peopleexpanding away from earth’s surface at speed of light....ZPG = Population ConnectionToday: U.S. and European populations are declining if you exclude immigration. Japan stable. China slowed by government policy. Southern hemisphere and India have exploding population growth. Mexico City, Cairo, Istanbul, Calcutta. Poorest grow fastest. Why? 1)inability to control birth rates, 2) high death rates, esp. children, 3) children as labor assets, 4) children as lottery tickets, 5) children as saleable commodities, 6) in U.S. there is a strong positive correlation between low intelligence and high number of children. * abortion = the ending of a pregnancy 23
* infanticide = killing an unwanted or unneeded child direct vs. indirect Politics of fertility... individual, family, social group, government, global Fertility controls = methods of controlling birth rates Becoming a Person * Personality = the predictable patterns of an individual’s behavior...their ‘default’ behavioral manifestation. (ex smart, aggressive, funny, lazy) We learn our personality from birth...but...we also have personality traits that are influenced by our genetic inheritance. (ex Schiz =50%. g=17%) Life Stages Generally: infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, aged Western medicine bases these categories on empirical biological features e.g. size, cognitive competence, sexual condition, other physical and chemical traits... other cultures may use different schemas...(ex. Mayans have no adolescence) Birth and Infancy Birth...who is involved?...Nisa?..a Kung woman gives birth in the forest, buries 24
afterbirth or deformed child...Ibo of Nigeria? woman gives birth alone, kills twins or triplets because copies must be evil spirits masquerading as infants to attack the family and tribe, but you can’t tell which one is the real baby...U.S.?..hospital staff, fathers not admitted until @ 20 years ago Pre-natal considerations: nutrition, disease, placental feeding Brazil 1966 *Infancy = stage of total dependency...who cares for the infant? Industrialized countries=medical or child-care professionals, specialists... Pre-ind. cultures= extended family and elder women, mention where men take care of the babies Problems with medicalized infant care 1. Breast-milk substitutes - no colostrum - 6,000 US babies die each year from
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