James Ward Frey Fisher 2012 p 57 It is for that reason that in the next section

James ward frey fisher 2012 p 57 it is for that

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cause for the same problem to reoccur in the future. (James-Ward, Frey & Fisher, 2012, p. 57). It is for that reason that in the next section (2.2.2), root causes are discussed to trace the origins of the above symptoms and perhaps the reasons why they have been overlooked and for how long have they been in existence. This section provides some further gravity for the problem analysis and its existence. 2.2.2 Discussion of root causes (cause and effect interlink). Literature reveals that the most root causes for local government failures stems from the lack of leadership commitment to address the skills shortages. This is further aggravated by the fact that the transfer of skills hardly happens despite consultants being extensively used by municipalities. The AGSA reported that skills transfer were at 139 (47%) of the 2013-14 audit clients, at 155 (62%) of the 2012-13 audit clients, and at 138 (61%) of the 2011- 12 audit clients where the AGSA performed an audit of management of consultants. The continued use of consultants by local government is indicative of of skills deficit and very low efforts for skills transfer (AGSA 2013a:114; AGSA 2014:62; AGSA 2015:84). 17
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Ramutsheli and Janse van Rensburg (2015) argue that although these aspects and problems all contribute to the inadequate service delivery in South Africa , Francis (2013, p. 29 ) further suggests that ineffective leadership is the ultimate key problem, and that it has been evident in the South African public sector environment. He posits further that this situation is predominantly caused by appointing incompetent senior officials and the absence of accountability from public sector leaders (South African Journal of Accounting Research 171). One other major root causes that are contributing immensely to the increasing number of cases of non-compliance with the laws, systems controls and regulations is the glaring hesitation by the leadership to ensure that there are consequences for transgressions of regulations and laws, and for poor performance (AGSA 2013a:103; AGSA 2014:19). The AGSA (2013a:92; 2014:25; AGSA 2015:10) revealed that this lack of consequences was evident in about 71% of audit clients during both the 2011-12 and 2012-13 financial year audits and in 42% of audit clients during the 2013-14 financial year. The report further indicated that some auditees had not even investigated the previous year’s irregular, unauthorised, and fruitless and wasteful expenditures, and had failed to determine if any person was liable. A requirement in terms the Municipal Finance Management Act (South Africa 2003; AGSA 2013a:103; AGSA 2014:45; AGSA 2015:10). The reluctance by the leadership of not holding officials accountable for noncompliance with laws and regulations and poor performance, creates a perception that such behaviour is acceptable and tolerated (AGSA 2013a:92; AGSA 2014:80). The lack of effective, coherent and transformative political and executive leadership to steer implementation of local government turnaround processes towards the right direction contributes 18
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directly to the root causes. (Meyer & Cloete, 2006:305). The lack of a clear vision by municipal leaders of what they anticipate for
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