based struggles and avoided the extremes of Stalinist domination Under MAO, lost time in race between economic development and population growth in China
Classic Social revolutions of FR, RUS, CHI = transformed long-established monarchical states into mass-mobilizing national regimes NATION BUILDING SOCIAL REVOLUTIONS IN THE THIRD WORLD Some countries colonized by foreign imperial powers : Vietnam, Portuguese colonies Revolution as part of process of national liberation from colonialism Some countries are inherited dictatorships caught in webs of neo-colonial influence : Cuba, Mexico, Iran Revolutions to forge stronger states, more nationalist than previous regimes All Third World demonstrations (except for Iran in 1977-79) depended on peasant’s revolts from below + played out as military struggles among leaderships. Setting = penetrated by foreign imperial influences Aim s= definition of autonomous national IDS on international scene + forging new political ties Importance of international contexts of 3 rd world Revolutions Unable us to understand forms of authoritarian regimes that emerged Relationship of a revolutionized country to the Great Powers The regional geopolitical context of each revolution (possibilities of immediate conflict with neighbor). Social Revolutions in Central and Latin America Under influence of US: influences the shape of new regimes A) MEXICO 1910-11 = Mexican Revolution (triggers: Anti-Diaz forces moving back and forth across the border + defeats of Madero and Huerta) US launched anti-revolutionary interventions (ended with WWI) = Mexico could consolidate new nationalist regime. B) CUBA 1959 = Cuban Revolution
(trigger: US failed to prevent Castro to overthrow Batista) Castro= assert national autonomy of Cuba and go with USSR. Became eco + militarily dependent on USSR C) BOLIVIA and NICARAGUA 1952-54 in Bolivia Since 1979 in Nicaragua = Examples of the opposite potential effects of US determination to limit + roll-back social and political radicalism. Bolivia = spontaneous revolts from peasants Expropriated major owners Threat to create a nationalist new regime outside of US influence (!) accepted US aid to rebuild a professional military equipment. Nicaragua = US helped in the overthrow of corrupt and weakened dictator (installed under US sponsorship). Too early to tell if revolutionaries will survive Reagan administration efforts to subvert their rule The Vietnamese and Iranian Revolution 2 cases where: Foreign threats have been adequate to call revolutionary military mobilization Great power rivalries have made it possible for the revolutionary regimes to oppose “American Imperialism” without being deposed by US military intervention. Vietnamese Revolution - Peasant support in both North and South - Success due to educated Vietnamese (from French colonial period) that founded the Communist Party of Vietnam - Geopolitically: benefited from distance French + US forces and of their ability to receive supplies from China and USSR - Defeat of US in South Vietnam
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