First time exposure to antigen is the primary

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First time exposure to antigen is the primary response, and antibodies are made. The secondary humoral response responds quickly upon exposure again because of the memory cells. Some plasma cells are memory cells. They form antibody upon first exposure but won’t release it. Second exposure B cells will release antibodies right away. 7. Explain how T and B cells become differentiated from precursor cells. T cells— formed in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus B- cells— formed in bone marrow and go to spleen. Mature into plasma cell once introduced to antigen. 8. List Three subpopulations of T cells and describe the major function of each. T helper— lymphs that express the CD4 antigen. They provide help to the B cells in recognizing foreign antigens and producing antibody to it. T cytotoxic-- that are capable of inducing the death of infected somatic or tumor cells; they kill cells that are infected with viruses (or other pathogens ), or are otherwise damaged or dysfunctional.
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T suppressor-- close down the immune response after invading organisms are destroyed. 9. Explain what null cells are. large granular lymphocyte without surface markers or membrane-associated proteins from B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes 10. Explain the process of antibody production from phagocytosis through plasma cells. Macrophage---- B cell (T independent)--- pole caping--- B cell or reactive lymph--- plasma cell Regulation of the Immune Response 1. Define and list 3 agents that induce immunosuppression Immunosuppression— suppression of the immune system **3 Agents the induce immunosuppression*** Radiation—kills bone marrow cells. WBC’s Lymphs, monos, etc Steriods—they inhibit T-cells (localized. Example cortisone) 2 types steroids—corticoids and anabolic steroids. Cyclosporin—inhibits T cells for transplantation. It is nephrotic so therapeutic ranges are extremely important. ALG- anit lymphatic globulin- it is a monoclonal antibody against T cells, it inhibits their function. Anti-inflamatory—NSAD (non steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs) Tylenol, Ibuprophen, Celebrex, naproxen. They inhibit the arachadonic acid pathway. 2. Describe and diagram the complement sequence (Both classical and alternative pathways) that results in lysis of a cell. In some procedures, complement interferes with the reaction and must be inactivated. Serum must be heated at 56C for 30 minutes and is good for 4 hours. This is good for syphilis testing. Complement has many functions but the main one is lysis in the cell Hemolysis: antigen-antibody reaction that as occurred in a blood bank test (positive reaction) 3 pathways to activate complement where over 20 proteins are involved: classical pathway, alternative pathway (Propardin Pathway), and the Lectin Pathway CLASSICAL PATHWAY (immunoglobulin initiates complement sequence – I molecule of IgM or 2 molecules of IgG) C1: recognition unit C4, C2, and C3: activation unit C5 – C9: membrane attack complex *Recognition Unit
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