Common under the skin of the flanks between the last

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Common under the skin of theflanks– between the last rib and hips –and buttocks, breasts, bony sockets behind eyes and surrounding thekidneysWhite fat – most common adipose tissueBrown fat – highly vascular adipose tissue, with numerous mitochondria.Brown fat is stimulated by the nervous system to break down lipids. Theheat produced warms circulating blood to increase the metabolic heatgeneration of an individualoMore common in infants than adultsoAbsences may be connected to obesityAdipocytes are metabolically active cells
Chapter 4The Tissue Level of OrganizationoThese cells do not die during weight lossoCells do not divide in adultsoMesenchymal cells can give rise to cells that may differentiate into fat cellsLiposuction is a temporary solution to weight. Fat cells are removed but,can be re-created by mesenchymal cellsRETICULAR TISSUEFound in spleen and liver (stroma)oStroma supports functional cells – parenchyma cellsAlso, found in lymph nodes and bone marrowoDENSE CONNECTIVE TISSUESAKA collagenous tissues – collagen fibers are the dominant type of fiber in thistissue(2) types:Dense regular CToCollagenous fibers are parallel to each other, packed tightly andaligned with the forcesoTendons – transfer the pull of the contracting muscle to theboneoLigamentsoAponeurosis – a tendinous sheet that attaches a broad, flatmuscle to anther muscle or to several bones of the skeletonFound on skull, lower back, abdomen, palms and solesoElastic tissue – made completely of elastic fibers – helpsstabilizes the positions of the vertebraeDense irregular CToFibers form an interwoven meshwork with no pattern thatsupport areas subjected to stresses from many directionsoA layerof this gives skin its strengthoForms a sheath around cartilages (except at joints)oForms a capsule that surrounds internal organs (i.e. liver, kidney,spleen and enclosed cavities of joints)Contains variable amounts of elastic fibersWith higher amounts of elastic fibers, tissue is more stringy and resilient(i.e. walls of large BVs and respiratory pathways)oFLUID CONNECTIVE TISSUEBlood and lymphPlasma– watery matrix of blood; containsformed elements– RBCs, WBCs andplateletsNormally confined to the vessels of the cardiovascular system and ismoved around by contractions of the heartWhile in arteries, blood pressure forces water and small solutes out ofthe blood stream, across capillariesoCreates interstitial fluidLymph– formed when IF enters the lymphatic systemUltimately is returned to superior/inferior vena cava
Chapter 4The Tissue Level of Organization4.5CARTILAGE AND BONE PROVIDE A STRONG SUPPORTING FRAMEWORKCARTILAGEoMatrix is a firm gel that contains polysaccharide derivatives called chondroitin sulfatesoChondrocytes – cartilage cells – only cells in the cartilage matrixOccupy lacunae – small chambersoAvascular; relies on diffusion for nutrient/waste exchangeBlood vessel formation is inhibited by chemical produced by chondrocytes –antiangiogenesis factoro

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