Yathrid medina he gained prestige by using the

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yathrid ( Medina) – he gained prestige by using the already existing Medinian division for his benefit ( discussion whether muhammad wanted to spread islam beyond arab peninsula but it does notwithstanding) Islam means submission to the will of Allah, those who submit to the will are called Muslims
Quran, Muhammad sayings and examples Sharia ( intepretations and elaborations by muslim legal scholars) (Talmud) o Islam and judiaism share some structural similarities – making the text as center of religious practice Perfected religion, Allah is also the God of Jews and Christians. Muslims believe that the black meteorite in Mecca was initially a shrine for Abraham – hence a connection between Judaism and Islam Jews and Christians-People of the book yet still inferior – Jiyza tax -----fill in!! Muslim treatment of non-muslims was consistent with byzantine rule, but Christians threatened by Islam now that Islam was equalizing them with jews Palestine under Muslim rule Fill in/ read on own Land tenure systems and land ownerships which ones where in place when jewish settlers were in place 3/20/18 European Inroads and Communal Tensions Ibrahim, son of Mohammad Ali governed Syria, Palestine, and parts of Lebanon from 1831-1840, brought Christians to administrative posts, assessed taxes, encouraged European trade and influx of Christian minorities to balance Ottoman demands for Egyptian withdrawal- communal clashes as Europeans prefer Christian Arabs over Muslims. Muslims Revolt against Christians in Damascus in 1860 Jews encourage them Hatte Sharif of Gulhane-Edict of Reformation – 1839 ( western liberal principles) beginning of Tanzimat ( reordering of the society- Hatti Humayan) 1856 but Hatti Sharif also a British design ( Stratford De Redcliff) balancing Russians PALESTINE: Palshaliks of Sidon and Damascus ( divided into Sanjaks (like a county eg Bergen county) further divided into nahiyas) o Governed from Damascus with exception of Israel Changing Patterns: Trade, Land, Agriculture & Population ( Smith ) British Ottoman Commercial convention- 1838, integrate OE to the world economy- Beirut, Jaffa, Haifa emerge as centers of European imports- Jerusalem becomes an area of attention b/c of European religious Ottoman Land Reforms of 1858 – private property law & 1867- law allowing foreigners to own land – taxes paid to ottoman empire o After 1867 – easier to buy land – esp for incoming European settlers To regularize the land ownership and cultivation throughout the empire Establish clear title possession or use of land-tax liabilities, increase state revenues Absentee Lebanese landlords own land in Palestine- make profit by selling to incoming Jewish settlers 1867 granted foreigners to own land, but taxes paid to Ottoman government LAND IN PALESTINE 1-state land ( miri) uncultivated bc of security issue o Ottoman powers kept this land to themselves for state issues
2-mulk ( private property) owned by large landowners – ottoman deprived of land use income or taxes o

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