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yathrid ( Medina) – he gained prestige by using the already existing Medinian division for hisbenefit( discussion whether muhammad wanted to spread islam beyond arab peninsula but it does notwithstanding)Islam means submission to the will of Allah, those who submit to the will are called Muslims
Quran, Muhammad sayings and examples Sharia ( intepretations and elaborations by muslim legal scholars) (Talmud)oIslam and judiaism share some structural similarities – making the text as center of religious practicePerfected religion, Allah is also the God of Jews and Christians. Muslims believe that the black meteorite in Mecca was initially a shrine for Abraham – hence a connection between Judaism and IslamJews and Christians-People of the book yet still inferior – Jiyza tax -----fill in!!Muslim treatment of non-muslims was consistent with byzantine rule, but Christians threatened by Islam now that Islam was equalizing them with jewsPalestine under Muslim ruleFill in/ read on ownLand tenure systems and land ownerships which ones where in place when jewish settlers were in place 3/20/18European Inroads and Communal TensionsIbrahim, son of Mohammad Ali governed Syria, Palestine, and parts of Lebanon from 1831-1840, brought Christians to administrative posts, assessed taxes, encouraged European trade and influx of Christian minorities to balance Ottoman demands for Egyptian withdrawal- communal clashes as Europeans prefer Christian Arabs over Muslims. Muslims Revolt against Christians in Damascus in 1860 Jews encourage themHatte Sharif of Gulhane-Edict of Reformation – 1839 ( western liberal principles) beginning of Tanzimat ( reordering of the society- Hatti Humayan) 1856 but Hatti Sharif also a British design ( Stratford De Redcliff) balancing RussiansPALESTINE: Palshaliks of Sidon and Damascus ( divided into Sanjaks (like a county eg Bergen county) further divided into nahiyas) oGoverned from Damascus with exception of IsraelChanging Patterns: Trade, Land, Agriculture & Population ( Smith )British Ottoman Commercial convention- 1838, integrate OE to the world economy- Beirut, Jaffa, Haifa emerge as centers of European imports- Jerusalem becomes an area of attentionb/c of European religiousOttoman Land Reforms of 1858 – private property law & 1867- law allowing foreigners to own land – taxes paid to ottoman empireoAfter 1867 – easier to buy land – esp for incoming European settlersTo regularize the land ownership and cultivation throughout the empireEstablish clear title possession or use of land-tax liabilities, increase state revenuesAbsentee Lebanese landlords own land in Palestine- make profit by selling to incoming Jewish settlers1867 granted foreigners to own land, but taxes paid to Ottoman governmentLAND IN PALESTINE1-state land ( miri) uncultivated bc of security issueoOttoman powers kept this land to themselves for state issues
2-mulk ( private property) owned by large landowners – ottoman deprived of land use income or taxeso