Understand lahars and their implications lab 8

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Understand lahars and their implications. Lab 8: Geology of Washington Know what kind of events (terrane accretion/mountain building, flood basalts, glaciation, volcanism, etc.) shaped the geology and topography of Washington. Be able to name at least 5 different rocks that you might find in Washington. Be able to read and interpret a geologic map.
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118
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119 often grayish-green, aligned minerals, Non-Granular (Massive) Figure 2. Metamorphic rocks ID chart. Rock Identification Charts Figure 1. Igneous rocks ID chart.
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120 Clastic rocks can have fossils! (i.e. fossiliferous sandstone or fossiliferous shale) Figure 3. Sedimentary rocks ID chart.
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121 Important Sedimentary Minerals Mineral Diagnostic Mineral Properties Quartz Many colors (often dull, sometimes translucent), hard (scratches glass), conchoidal fracture (can break in smooth curves), no cleavage Gypsum White (can be almost clear), soft (can be easily scratched with a fingernail), good cleavage in 2 directions (but not at 90 o ) Calcite White, crystals can be rhombic, reacts (fizzes) with dilutes acid (HCl), soft (scratched with a glass but not with a fingernail) Halite White or translucent, soft, 3 cleavage planes (cubic crystals), salty taste (taste at your own risk!) Limonite Yellow-orange, soft, amorphous (no constant or regular shape) Feldspar White/pink/tan, hard (scratches glass), good cleavage in 2 directions Important Metamorphic Minerals Mineral Diagnostic Mineral Properties Metamorphic Grade Quartz Many colors (often dull, sometimes translucent), hard (scratches glass), conchoidal fracture (can break in smooth curves), no cleavage Any Garnet Often dark red, hard (scratches glass), can have conchoidal frac- ture (break in smooth curves), no cleavage, crystal is 12-sided Medium-high or higher Calcite White, soft (scratched with a knife but not with a fingernail), cleavage in 3 directions (rhombic), reacts (fizzes) with dilute acid Any Mica Brown/translucent, soft (scratches with fingernail), 1 good cleavage (flakes off into thin sheets) Medium-low or higher Actinolite Light to dark green, hard, good cleavage, needle-shaped crystals. A type of amphibole Medium-high or higher Feldspar White/pink/tan, hard (scratches glass), good cleavage in 2 directions High Mineral Identification Tables Important Igneous Minerals Mineral Diagnostic Mineral Properties Composition Quartz Many colors (often dull, sometimes translucent), hard (scratches glass), conchoidal fracture (can break in smooth curves), no cleavage Felsic Mica Brown/translucent, soft (scratches with fingernail), 1 good cleavage (flakes off into thin sheets) Feldspar White/pink/tan, hard (scratches glass), good cleavage in 2 directions Amphibole/ Pyroxene Dark (black or greenish gray), hard (scratches glass), good cleavage Olivine Green (weathers to orange), hard (scratches glass), no cleavage Mafic
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