scale implementations and pilot projects with limited reach.2.2.5Cost and mHealth in maternal health care Acquisition and ownership costs refer to the risks and costs associated with purchasing mHealth solutions and maintaining them, respectively. A risk inherent to the adoption of solutions built on continuously evolving technologies is obsolescence. One aspectof oldness is the need to periodically upgrade a solution, which can be costly ,both in terms ofdirect upgrade costs and indirect costs associated with integration and/or training. Tied to thishurdle is the increasing cost of maintenance, since older technologies are less readily supported. Another aspect of obsolescence can be even more costly i.e., when business models are built on a given technology solution which has to compete with emerging, less expensive solutions addressing the same need. A good example of this is mHealth solutions for arrhythmia diagnosis (Calandro et al., 2010). In an emerging field driven by high technology, many new solutions are developed and brought to market by start-ups. In some cases, when the technology risk has been
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overcome, large companies acquire a start-up’s solution and integrate it into their own offering. When this does not happen, the risks associated with the business viability/success of a start-up (including from competition) add a meaningful element of cost to the solution (Kamalipour et al., 2007). As a result, initial uptake of a solution may be slow until there is sufficient confidence that the entity not only has a winning solution, but also is a robust supplier. Additional potential costs associated with start-up solutions are risks associated withmanufacturing quality, supply volume and customer support services. Acquisition of new technology also has a potential cost due to an increase in the liability of the healthcare provider prescribing the related medical solution. Examples of this type of potential cost are often seen in the drug industry, due to unforeseen complications of the use of a pharmaceutical agent and its use in patients. Given the infancy of mHealth solutions, this type of potential cost may be meaningful until the field matures [Wes121]Theoretical ReviewThe adoption of mHealth can be well explained through theories of health promotion and technology adoption. This study shall use the Technology Acceptance model theory to underpin the practice of health promotion.Technology Acceptance ModelThis is an information system theory that depicts the model which uses growing awareness totechnology and hence results in accepting and using the technology (Davis, Bagozzi, &Warshaw, 1989). The model suggests that a number of factors influence the decision of a useron how and when to use a new technology when faced by one. The factors are as follows:Perceived usefulness – This is described as the degree to which the user of a particular technology believes that, by using the technology it would enhance their job performance(Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw, 1989).
Perceived ease-of-use – This is described as the degree to which users of a particular technology believe that by using the technology they would be free from effort (Davis, et al.,
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