Ch 4 - Developing Through the Lifespan

15 physical development infants psychological

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15 Physical Development Infants’ psychological development depends on their biological development. To understand the emergence of motor skills and memory, we must understand the developing brain .
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6 16 Developing Brain The developing brain overproduces neurons. Peaking around 28 billion at 7 months, these neurons are pruned to 23 billion at birth. 17 Developing Brain The development of the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions, causing various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence— standing before walking, babbling before talking—this is called maturation . 18 Motor Development First, infants begin to roll over. Next, they sit unsupported, crawl, and finally walk. Experience has little effect on this sequence. Renee Altier for Worth Publishers Jim Craigmyle/ Corbis Phototake Inc./ Alamy Images Profimedia.CZ s.r.o./ Alamy
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7 19 Maturation and Infant Memory The earliest age of conscious memory is around 3½ years (Bauer, 2002). A 5 year old has a sense of self and an increased long term memory. Amy Pedersen Courtesy of Carolyn Rovee Collier 20 Cognitive Development Piaget believed that the driving force behind intellectual development is our biological development amidst experiences with the environment. Both photos: Courtesy of Judy DeLoache 21 Schemas Schemas are mental molds into which we pour our experiences.
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8 22 Assimilation and Accommodation The process of assimilation involves incorporating new experiences into our current understanding (schema). The process of adjusting a schema and modifying it is called accommodation . Jean Piaget with a subject Bill Anderson/ Photo Researchers, Inc. 23 Piaget’s Theory and Current Thinking 24 Sensorimotor Stage In the sensorimotor stage, babies take in the world by looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping. Piaget believed children in the sensorimotor stage could not think —they do not have any abstract concepts or ideas.
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9 25 Sensorimotor Stage Children younger than 6 months of age do not grasp object permanence , i.e., objects that are out of sight are also out of mind. Doug Goodman 26 Sensorimotor Stage Wynn (1992, 2000) showed that children stared longer at the wrong number of objects than the right ones. 27 Preoperational Stage Piaget suggested that from 2 years old to about 6 7 years old, children are in the preoperational stage—too young to perform mental operations.
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10 28 Preoperational Stage Ontario Science Center 29 Preoperational Stage DeLoache (1987) showed that children as young as 3 years of age are able to use metal operations. When shown a model of a dog’s hiding place behind the couch, a 2½ year old could not locate the stuffed dog in an actual room, but the 3 year old did. 30 Egocentrism Piaget concluded that preschool children are egocentric. They cannot perceive things from another’s point of view.
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11 31 Theory of Mind Preschoolers begin to develop the ability to understand another’s mental state when they begin forming a theory of mind .
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  • Fall '09
  • PETERGRAF
  • Developmental Psychology, Lennart Nilsson/ Albert, Bonniers Publishing Company, Nilsson/ Albert Bonniers

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