Neural tracks that control affective rewardpunishment

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neural tracks that control affective, reward/punishment and inhibitory processing show different responses and connectivity compared to the control groups (Alcorn, et. al., 2013). Children found to have CU and antisocial behaviors (AB) show lower amygdala reactivity to fearful faces as well as abnormal activity in the vmPFC, OFC and caudate which are areas of the brain associated with prediction error, reward outcomes, affective decision making and reversal learning (Viding & McCrory, 2012). Environmentally, two factors are though to influence the development of ASPD classified as early starters in adolescence and late starters with a later onset (Shaw, Hyde & Brennan, 2012). Two of the most reliable predictors of ASPD are child behavior problems and parenting styles (Shaw, et. al., 2012). Beginning in adolescence, children experience developmental periods of growth. It is suggested that as early as the second year of life the relationship between the child and the caregiver accounts for the contribution for child temperament and problemed behaviors (Shaw, et. al., 2012). A longitudinal study of 310 infant boys and their mothers underwent a study when the boys were between 6 and 17 month old and studied until they were 6 to 10 years of age, followed up again at age 16 using self-reporting instruments and phone interviews. The groups were separated into stable high, stable low, late-starting high and a high decreasing group. Using childhood predictors, maternal depressive symptoms, interparental
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CLUSTER B PERSONALITY DISORDERS 6 aggression, early childhood externalizing, neighborhood impoverishment, social information processing, parental monitoring knowledge, perceived peer reviews, deviant talk, psychiatric diagnoses, and court records resulted in boys in the highest decreasing group showed the highest level of callousness, perceived peer AB and peer deviant talk and the lowest level of parental knowledge. Boys of the higher groups also showed the highest frequencies of conduct disorders and oppositional defiant disorder and depression. The results of this study found maternal depressive symptoms may lead children to associate with more deviant peers leading them to experience high levels of life events causing their AB levels to maintain and increase (Shaw, et. al., 2012). The key transitional periods within the life of a child are marked by biological transformations cognitively and physically having critical implications for the socioemotional functioning. Hence, the mental health of the parents and the quality of caregiving represent important influences on a child’s behaviors (Shaw, et. al., 2012). Parenting characterized by insensitivity, a low responsiveness, psychologically unavailable, hostile or aggressive is linked to antisocial behaviors. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits include a lack of guilt, empathy and a shallow affect (Viding & McCrory, 2012). Children exhibiting signs of antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional have an impoverished personal experience of fear and guilt posing their
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  • Spring '18
  • Borderline personality disorder, Antisocial personality disorder, Narcissistic personality disorder

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