It is important for managers to reduce gaps between

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Chapter CR / Exercise 3
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that employees ascribe to an organization based on their observations of what occurs on a daily basis. It is important for managers to reduce gaps between espoused and enacted values because they can significantly influence employee attitudes and organizational performance.Level 3: Basic Underlying Assumptions. Basic underlying assumptions constitute organizational values that have become so taken for granted over time that they become assumptions that guide organizational behavior. They represent deep-seated beliefs that employees have about their company and thus constitute the core of organizational culture. As you might expect, basic underlying assumptions are highly resistant to change. Students should give an example of each level from their own experience.AACSB: Analytical ThinkingAACSB: Knowledge ApplicationBlooms: ApplyKinicki - Chapter 14 #117Learning Objective: 14-01 What is culture and why is it important to understand its layers and functions?Level of Difficulty: 3 HardTopic: Organizational culture118.Identify and discuss the four functions of organizational culture. Use an example of a real organization to illustrate each of these functions. An organization's culture fulfills four important functions (see Figure 14.2): (1) organizational identity, (2) collective commitment, (3) social system stability, and (4) sense-making device. Function 1: culture provides employees with an organizational identity. Function 2: culture facilitates collective commitment. Function 3: culture promotes social system stability. Social system stability reflects the extent to which the work environment is perceived as positive and reinforcing, and the extent to which conflict and change are effectively managed. Function 4: culture shapes behaviors by helping members make sense of their surroundings. This function of culture helps employees understand why the organization does what it does and how it intends to accomplish its long-term goals. Students should give an example of a real organization to illustrate each of the four functions.AACSB: Analytical ThinkingAACSB: Knowledge ApplicationBlooms: ApplyKinicki - Chapter 14 #118Learning Objective: 14-01 What is culture and why is it important to understand its layers and functions?Level of Difficulty: 3 HardTopic: Functions of organizational culture
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Chapter CR / Exercise 3
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119.Draw and explain the competing values framework, describing each of the four types of organizational cultures. What is meant by "competing" values? Students should draw Figure 14.3. The competing values framework (CVF) provides a practical way for managers to understand, measure, and change organizational culture. It identifies four fundamental types of organizational culture as shown in Figure 14.3.The CVF was originally developed by a team of researchers who were trying to classify different ways to assess organizational effectiveness. This research showed that measures of organizational effectiveness varied along two fundamental dimensions or axes. One axis pertained to whether an organization focuses its attention and efforts on internal dynamics and employees or outward toward

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