A speaker is responsible for all of these norms one

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A speaker is responsible for all of these norms, One way of violating these norms is to insulate oneself from criticism by developing an impermeable, self-contained language system that defeats attempts to communicate with a general audience. because the terms of criticism do not mesh with its ideologically loaded terms. we should pay attention to such things as whether relevant voices are being heard or whether constraints are placed on the speech situation so that only one particular viewpoint gets adequately expressedHabermas’s view brings out what appears morally objectionable about many forms of propaganda. Propaganda is often felt to be a constraint. In virtually all forms there is no genuine dialogue. Typically, the slogans of the propagandist are ubiquitous. Symbols, pictures, and the like insinuate without necessarily stating. These communications are very far from the ideal speech situation-Richard Whately: He recognizes that in most people’s minds the appeal to emotions is considered a dishonest device to manipulate them into accepting what they would not accept by reason alone.Whately takes the view that reason alone does not provide the galvanizing force to get people to act. You need emotions to persuade people to do things. that people’s emotions can be stirred not just by exhortation but also by descriptions. Having granted that appeal to emotions can be justified, Whately nevertheless identifies an important ethical problem connected with emotional appeals: people resent the implication that they are in some way so morally deficient that they need to have such things as feelings of compassion arousedPeople feel resentment when their emotions are targeted -- That we should feel resentment when we find out about the dissimulation does not morally invalidate itIf our emotions are manipulated for the special interests of the orator, of which we don’t approve, we have good reason to object morally to the methods used.-Party feeling: 61 By this he means the tendency to identify strongly with a group— whether by religion,nation, family, political leanings, or whatever. It exists when there is an “us versus them”mentality (p 171)This mentality is bound up with our nature and makes important things such as government possible, but it has also been the cause of the “most gigantic wars.”Whately condemns not party feeling as such but excess of it. He identifies four causes leading to this excess: the desire of taking the lead; the desire forsome excitement or novelty; love of disputation; and pride, or what we might now call egogratification, bound up with triumph over an opponent. Ex: when there is no party feeling → the separation of Ireland -On the ethics of Propaganda:First, insofar as we see propaganda as aimed at provoking action of some sort, it must be evaluated in the light of such action. If the acts aim at conquest motivated by greed or

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