Distance running or cycling the stresses are

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distance running or cycling, the stresses are cumulative, the combined effect of repetitive movements that are at a relatively lower level of intensity. In activities that involve explosive and powerfully focused movements, such as weight training, the forces directed against the muscle are much more significant, and they occur over a much shorter time span. In each circumstance, the muscle will naturally break down, a process known as "catabolism." The breakdown includes the physical separation of the fibers that comprise the muscle structure. The subsequent repair of the damaged muscle is "anabolism," the building up and the growth of the existing and previously damaged fiber,” (Muscle). Ingesting protein, particularly in a shake, immediately following a workout helps to replenish the stores of glycogen and rebuild the torn muscle fibers. Whey protein, one of the quickest digesting proteins, is the preferred constituent following a workout because of its ability to be quickly absorbed into the muscles, therefore proactively initiating an anabolic state in the body (McKinley). It is also important to consume carbohydrates in conjunction with protein following intense exercise, as the utilization of 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
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carbohydrate causes an insulin spike in the body, in turn providing a “transport” for the protein to get to the damaged muscles. In 2007, the Department of Health and Exercise Science at the College of New Jersey conducted a study on twenty-one college football players to determine the effects of protein supplementation on muscular performance and resting hormonal changes. Eleven were assigned a protein supplement and the other ten received a placebo, and both parties embarked on the same twelve week resistance training program. “During each testing session subjects were assessed for strength (one repetition maximum bench press and squat), power (Wingate anaerobic power test) and body composition. Resting blood samples were analyzed at weeks 0, 6, and 12 for total testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and IGF-1, a natural molecular structure similar to insulin (Faigenbaum). The group receiving the protein supplement consumed an average of 188 grams of protein daily, while the placebo group averaged only 120 grams of protein per day. The protein group showed an average increase in one repetition maximum squat of 23.5 kg, while the placebo group averaged only a 9.1 kg increase. The one repetition maximum for bench press for the protein group produced an average increase of 11.6 kg, whereas the placebo group generated an increase of only 8.4 kg. Lean body mass also increased by an average of 1.4 kg in the protein group, and only by .1 kg in the placebo group. While there was no substantial difference in resting levels of testosterone, growth hormone, or IGF-1, the placebo group did in fact produce far less cortisol than the protein group (Faigenbaum). Cortisol production is important in the regulation of blood pressure, the releasing of insulin for blood
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Christopher Reinemann
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