the quartet orchestrating the second american revolution 1783 1789.pdf

44 buckley once and future king 3245 also makes a

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44. Buckley, Once and Future King , 32–45, also makes a case for Morris, as does Richard Brookhiser in Gentleman Revolutionary: Gouverneur Morris, the Rake Who Wrote the Constitution (New York, 2003), 78–93. 45. JM to Jared Sparks, 8 April 1831, in Farrand, Records of the Federal Convention , 3:499. For the fullest discussion of Morris’s editorial changes, see Brookhiser, Gentleman Revolutionary , 90–93. 46. Franklin’s speech is reproduced in Edmund S. Morgan, ed., Not Your Usual Founding Father: Selected Readings from Benjamin Franklin (New Haven, Conn., 2006), 286–87. CHAPTER 6: THE GREAT DEBATE 1. JM in Congress, 6 April 1796, MP 16:295–96. 2. The authoritative scholarly study of the ratification process is Pauline Maier, Ratification: The People Debate the Constitution, 1787–88 (New York, 2010). The documents for each state ratifying convention are published in DHRC , a massive editorial project nearing completion. 3. The fullest account of the referendum on independence in the spring and summer of 1776 is Pauline Maier, American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997), 217–34. I offer a more succinct version of the story in American Creation: Triumphs and Tragedies at the Founding of the Republic (New York, 2007), 49–51. 4. This is a huge claim, I realize, but the only serious alternative is the Lincoln-Douglas debates in 1858, and they could never have happened if the debates over ratification had gone the other way.
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5. The decision of the Virginia legislature is described in GW to JM, 5 November 1787, MP 10:242–43. 6. GW to JM, 10 October 1787, MP 10:189. 7. Maier, Ratification , 25–49. 8. JM to Edmund Pendleton, 28 October 1787, MP 10:223–24. 9. Maier, Ratification , 74–75; Jeffrey L. Pasley, “The Tyranny of Printers”: Newspaper Politics in the Early American Republic (Charlottesville, Va., 2001), 33–43. 10. One delegate to the Pennsylvania convention, Robert Whitehill, claimed that only one in twenty residents in the western counties of the state had even read the Constitution. DHRC 2:65–72. 11. GW to Lafayette, 18 September 1787, and GW to Benjamin Harrison, 24 September 1787, PWCS 5:334, 339. 12. See the letters, PWCS 5:297, 365–66, 366–68, 368–69; 6:95–97; JM to GW, 18 October 1787, MP 10:196–97. 13. GW to Charles Carter, 7 December 1787, PWCS 5:492. 14. Remarks on Signing the Constitution, 17 September 1787, HP 4:253. 15. To the Daily Advertiser , 20 July 1787, HP 4:229–32. 16. AH to GW, 11–15 October 1787, and GW to AH, 18 October 1787, HP 4:280–81, 284–85; Ron Chernow, Alexander Hamilton (New York, 2004), 245. 17. “Conjectures About the New Constitution,” 17–30 September 1787, HP 4:275–76. 18. JJ to JA, 16 October 1787, JP 3. 19. JJ to GW, 3 February 1787, JP 3. 20. JM to TJ, 6 September 1787, MP 10:163–64. 21. TJ to JM, 20 June 1878, MP 10:64. 22. JM to William Short, 24 October 1787, MP 10:220–22. 23. JM to Edmund Randolph, 21 October 1787, MP 10:199–200. 24. The fullest state-by-state assessment is in JM to Ambrose Madison, 8 November 1787, MP 10:243– 44. 25. JM to Archibald Stuart, 30 October 1787, MP 10:232. 26. JM to Ambrose Madison, 30 September 1787, MP 10:179–80.
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