The remaining hypotheses related to various consumer characteristics. H 4 ( Males are more likely than females to purchase online ) and H 8 ( Consumers with Internet experience are more likely to purchase online ) were both supported. There was weak support for H 7 ( Consum- ers with higher incomes are more likely to purchase online ) and H 9 ( Consumers that shop using other direct marketing channels are more likely to purchase online ) with respect to the amount of online purchasing. H 5 ( Older consumers are less likely to purchase online) and H 6 ( Con- sumers with higher education are more likely to purchase online ) were not sup- ported. DISCUSSION Overall, it seems that the perceived negative consequences of Internet shop- ping, specifically product and privacy risk, and the loss of social interaction, are closely associated with online purchasing behav- ior. Perceived risk seems to deter Internet users from shopping online frequently and from spending significant amounts of money. Prior findings on the influence of perceived risk on Internet purchasing are mixed. Of the six studies summarized in Table 7, only half found a significant asso- ciation between these two variables. How- ever, consistent with Swaminathan et al. (1999), this current study found that con- sumers who place a high value of impor- tance on personal contact and the social benefits of shopping are likely to spend less online than their counterparts who place less value on the social shopping experi- ence. The perceived benefits of Internet shopping were also found to be significantly associated with online purchasing behav- ior. Consumers who value the convenience and enjoyment of Internet shopping tend to purchase more online and more often. This is consistent with prior studies of this fac- tor (Table 7), including recent findings from Hong Kong (Lee et al., 2003). Despite the diminishing gender differ- ences between Internet users in New Zealand and elsewhere (e.g., Howell & Mariott, 2001), which was reflected in the survey sample where 54% of respondents were female, gender continued to show a
Copyright © 2005, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. is prohibited. Journal of Global Information Management, 13(2), 66-88, April-June 2005 81 significant association with online purchas- ing behavior. Consistent with studies in Singapore (Teo, 2001) and the US (Li et al., 1999) (Table 7), male respondents were likely to spend more on online purchases and shop online more frequently than were female respondents. The significant positive correlation between gender and both perceived risk and loss of social interaction (Table 5) sug- gests that this may partly reflect a tendency for female consumers to place more im- portance on the risks and social benefits of Internet shopping. However, gender was Table 7. Comparison of findings with prior studies of online purchasing Factor Present study Prior studies Perceived risk Consumers who place importance on the perceived risk of Internet shopping are less likely to purchase online Vijayasarathy & Jones (2000) US Consumer risk negatively influences attitude towards Internet
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