7 define the following terms from chapter 10 a casein

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7) Define the following terms from Chapter 10: a. Casein: the primary protein (80%) found in milk that can be precipitated with acid or certain enzymes Page 1 of 5
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b. Whey: the watery component of milk removed from the curd in cheese manufacture. Consists of primarily water (93%) lactose, and whey proteins (primarily lactalbumin and lactoglobulin) c. Pasteurization: food preservation in which liquids are heated to a specified temperature for a certain amount of time to destroy most microorganisms that can cause disease, spoilage, or undesired fermentation d. Ultrapasteurization: a process in which a milk product is heated above 145 degrees F but below 280 degrees F for .01 to 15 seconds e. ultrahigh-temperature (UHT): milk that has been pasteurized using very high temperatures (above 280 degrees F), is aseptically sealed, and is capable of being stored unrefrigerated for up to 3 months f. homogenization: mechanical process that breaks up fat globules in milk into much smaller globules that do not clump together and are permanently dispersed in a fine emulsion g. coagulate / curdling: clotting/becoming semisolid. In milk, denatured proteins often separate from the liquid by coagulation h. mild solids-not-fat (MSNF): federal standard identifying total solids (primarily proteins and lactose) found in milk that are not fat i. imitation milk: product defined by the FDA as having appearance, taste, and function of milk but as being nutritionally inferior j. filled milk: a nutritionally altered milk that is made by replacing all or part of the milk fat with a vegetable fat k. curd: coagulated or thickened part of milk l. rennin: an enzyme sold commercially as rennet that causes milk to clot, forming a curd m. cultured: a dairy milk that has been fermented with lactic acid bacteria Chapter 11: Cheese 8) List and describe the steps of cheese-making (natural cheese). Milk selection: determines taste, fat content, and process of pasteurization; coagulation: cheese making starts with coagulation of casein protein in milk and whey is removed as curd forms; curd treatment: curd can be treated to remove more whey by cutting, heating, and salting, also knitting or pressing; curing/ripening: cheese becomes stronger in flavor as it ages, and depending on variety cheeses are subjected to different temperatures and humidities for the process 9) How is processed cheese made? Processed cheese is made by combining different varieties of natural cheese, heating to pasteurize, emulsifying the product, and forming into blocks/other shapes and packaged. Page 2 of 5
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10) What factors affect cheese flavor?
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  • Summer '17
  • Tracy Grgich

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