developing social networks. People’s conscience is being stirred up by the NGOs (EM2). The interviewees suggest additional media role to explore the untouched stories and hidden phenomena of the society and environment. For example, a number of interviewees were critical about media, as they felt that media could do better when compared with their present role. However, media is still helping other stakeholders such as pressure groups and NGOs to create awareness in the society towards CSER. One interviewee from a leading environmental pressure group expressed the view: “We are quite happy with the media but Table II. Themes extracted from qualitative interview analysis Antecedents of contributing barriers of CSER % of respondents Corruption and politics 69 Proper coordination 57 Government initiatives 76 Implementation of laws 61 Sustainable education and awareness 84 SAMPJ 7,2 334 Downloaded by UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA At 03:37 22 July 2016 (PT)
theyshoulddosomemore.Mediagiveslessspaceandtimeonenvironmentalissuesandless informationaswell”( PG1 ).Thesameinterviewee(IntervieweePG1)furthercomplainedthat some journalists are involved with “yellow journalism” (journalism that presents little or no legitimate well-researched news and instead uses eye-catching headlines to sell more newspapers). The linkages between media journalists and encroachers of land and rivers have resulted in the slower movement of CSER practices in Bangladesh. Some interviewees aredoubtfulabouttheeffectivenessofmediacoverageandthemedia’strueattitudetowards CSER. Similar to NGOs and media, civil society, such as environmental groups, consumer groups or other pressure groups, have a crucial role to play. Moreover, the civil society can influence government and regulatory authority’s decisions. Interviewees from NGOs and regulatory authority provided positive comments on civil society’s current initiatives. The interviewees highlighted the importance of a close cooperation between the stakeholders removing the CSER barriers in Bangladesh. It appears that the trade union leaders and customers are less concerned about their responsibilities towards corporate social and environmental obligations. Discussion, implications and conclusion In this study, we utilise stakeholder theory (in particular, the normative branch of stakeholder theory) to explore stakeholders’ views on barriers to CSER practices. We have focusedourstudyinadevelopingcountrycontexttogainanunderstandingofthesocialand environmentalcontextualfactorsthatrestrictCSERdevelopment.Thefindingsofthisstudy illustrate the perceptions of the stakeholder groups on what are the contributing barriers to CSER practice and is consistent with previous studies that indicate that CSER practice in organisations is hindered by corruption and politics, lack of coordination, lack of government initiatives, including regulatory guidelines, and, most importantly, from a lack of education and awareness of sustainability issues ( Islam and Dellaportas, 2011 ; Teoh and Thong, 1984 ; Jamali, 2008 ; Lodhia, 2003 ; Kuasirikun, 2005 ).
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