n. Women are more emotional. o. Women are less aggressive than men. p. Women are better at verbal ability. Men are better at mathematical ability. q. Guidelines for nonsexist counseling include: r. %H DZDUH RI RQH·V RZQ YDOXHV² s. Realize that there are no prescribed sex-ːrole behaviors. t. Reversals of traditional sex-ːroles is not pathological. u. Marriage is not a better outcome of therapy for a female than for a male. v. Women can be as autonomous and assertive as men;ΰ and men, can be expressive and tender as women. w. Anatomical differences are not a basis for theories of behavior. x. Failure to achieve culturally prescribed sex-ːrole behaviors is not a basis for diagnosis. y. Testing instruments that are sexually biased are not used. 3. Ethnic Groups and Cross-ːCultural Counseling (Gibson & Mitchell, 1995) a. Many culturally different populations do not wish to be acculturated and lose their cultural identity. b. Nondirective counseling techniques and role of the counselor is inconsistent with the expectations and values of some minority groups. c. Failure and ineffectiveness in the literature have been found to exist in the following areas for minority clients: d. Because most assessment instruments are culturally biased and diagnosticians are not generally from a minority group, minority clients are diagnosed as having more severe mental illnesses and than are white persons. e. As opposed to the white population, the minority population tends to use mental health services only in the most extreme circumstances, which greatly skews the statistics about persons using mental health services. f. Minority clients tend to drop out of treatment within the first six session, the reason for this is unknown but speculation is that they may either be less motivated or they may not perceived the services as helping.
g. Definite differences have been noted wbetween Black and White clients with the Black clients receiving more punitive therapies, i.e. stronger medications, restraints, seclusion. h. Minority group attitudes concerning sources of mental illness is markedly different .i.e. organic, inherited illnesses. i. Few trained therapists in whom the minority client can feel comfortable and share cultural identity. j. Minority clients are often misperceived by the counselor as because of differences in culturally defined nonverbal communication. k. Counseling may be viewed by the minority client as a control device forcing them away from their cultural behavior and toward a White culture. l. In order to help the minority client, Pedersen (1988) recommends awareness in the following areas. m. ability to recognize direct and indirect communication styles;ΰ n. sensitivity to nonverbal cues;ΰ o. awareness of cultural and linguistic differences;ΰ p. interest in the culture;ΰ q. sensitivity to the myths and stereotypes of the culture;ΰ r. concern for the welfare of persons from another culture;ΰ s. ability to articulate elements of his or her own culture;ΰ t. appreciation of the importance of multicultural teaching;ΰ u. awareness of the relationships between cultural groups;ΰ and
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- Summer '17
- Thomas Sherman