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religion and the act of camouflage. The process of determining a text’s level of complexity is important. The choices that teachers make about which texts particular students read and the contexts and tasks of use will influence students’ success (Hiebert, 2013). Providing students with complex text is not enough. We must teach students how to analyze and interact with complex text. As students think critically and make connections to complex text, they are becoming stronger readers, which ultimately will assist them in writing development. This process has shown me the importance ofusing assessment data to drive instruction and how to identify text complexity to support the needs of learners. Most importantly, I have learned the value of teaching comprehension in-conjunction with reading and writing. By connecting each complex and essential element during instruction, I can increase the development of literacy in my learners.ReferencesBottomley, D. M., Henk, W. A., & Melnick, S. A. (1997). Assessing children’s views about themselves as writers using the Writer Self-Perception Scale. The Reading Teacher, 51(4), 286–296.
15Education Northwest. (2013). 6+1 Trait® writing. Retrieved from Georgia Department of Education (GDOE). (2008). English Language Arts standards. Retrieved from -Grade-4-Standards.pdfHiebert, E. H. (2013). Supporting students’ movement up the staircase of text complexity. The Reading Teacher, 66(6), 459–468.Hiebert, E. H., & Pearson, P. D. (2013). What happens to the basics? Educational Leadership, 70(4), 48–53.Hollenbeck, A. F., & Saternus, K. (2013). Mind the comprehension iceberg: Avoiding titanic mistakes with the CCSS. The Reading Teacher, 66(7), 558–568.Laureate Education, Inc. (2014). Cognitive and noncognitive assessments. Baltimore, MD.Mariotti, A. P. (n. d.). Using interest inventories with struggling and unmotivated readers. Retrieved from -updates/Interest-Inventories.pdfReutzel, D. R., & Cooter, R. B., Jr. (2016). Strategies for reading assessment and instruction in an era of common core standards: Helping every child succeed (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Schoonen, R.(2019). Are reading and writing building on the same skills? The relationship between reading and writing in L1 and EFL. Reading & Writing, 32(3), 511–535.
16SEDL. (2013). Cognitive elements of reading. Retrieved from /framework/elements.htmlShanahan, T., Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2012). The challenge of challenging text. Educational Leadership, 69(6), 58–62.Tompkins, G. A. (2010). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Appendix A