12 since not all motivation theories are equally good

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12 Since not all motivation theories are equally good in predicting a wide range of behavior, managers may need to consider situational factors and to apply the correct motivational tools to the specific situation in order to improve results (as suggested in Goleman‘s emotional intelligence model.) Table 1 shows a set of common management situations, with examples relating to TQ, and gives suggestions for the type of motivation theory that could be applied to understand individual motivation and to shape it to meet individual and organizational goals.
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Table 1 Applying Motivation Theories to TQ 1 See, for example, Abraham Maslow, ―A Theory of Human Motivation,‖ Psychological Review 50, no. 4 (July 1943), 370 396; Abraham Maslow, Motivation and Personality (New York: Harper & Row, 1954); F. Herzberg, B. Mausner, and B. Snyderman, The Motivation to Work , 2d. ed. (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1959); Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960); and D. C. McClelland, Assessing Human Motivation (Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press, 1971). 2 Victor H. Vroom, Work and Motivation (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1964). 3 L. W. Porter and Edward E. Lawler, Managerial Attitudes and Performance (Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, 1968). 4 James W. Dean, Jr., and James R. Evans, Total Quality: Management Organization and Strategy, 2nd ed. (Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing, 2000), 270-271. 5 B. F. Skinner, Science and Human Behavior (New York: The Free Press, 1953). See also Beyond Freedom and Dignity (New York: Bantam Books, 1971). 6 J. S. Adams, ―Toward an Understanding of Equity,‖ Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67 (1963), 422 –436. See also J. S. Adams and W. E. Rosenbaum, ―The Relationship of Worker Productivity and Cognitive Dissonance About Wage Inequities,‖ Journal of Applied Psychology 55, no. 1 (1971), 161 164. 7 A. Bandura, Social Learning Theory (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1977). See also Marilyn Gist and Terence R. Mitchell, ―Self - Efficacy: A Theoretical Analysis of Its Determinants and Malleability,‖ Academy of Management Review 17, no. 2, (1992), 183 –211; and R. Kreitner and F. Luthans, ―A Social Learning Approach to Behavioral Management: Radical Behaviorists ‗Mellowing Out‘,‖ Organizational
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Dynamics 13, no. 2 (1984), 47 65. Also see R. A. Snyder and Ron ald R. Williams, ―Self Theory: An Integrative Theory of Work Motivation,‖ Journal of Occupational Psychology 55 (1982), 257 267. 8 Daniel Goleman. ―What Makes a Leader?‖ Harvard Business Review , November/December, 1998, 93- 102. and Daniel Goleman. Working With Emotional Intelligence (New York: Bantam Books, 1998). 9 Daniel Goleman. ―What Makes a Leader?‖ Harvard Business Review, November/December, 1998, 93 - 102. and Daniel Goleman. Working With Emotional Intelligence (New York: Bantam Books, 1998). 10 Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis, and Annie McKee. Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. (Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing), 2002. 11 Daniel Goleman. ―Leadership that Gets Results‖ Harvard Business Review, March/April, 2000, 78-90. 12 Bowditch and Buono, 73 74, see note 82.
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