organization, or individual for the purpose gaining some political, religious, economic, or social objective) e. Street Crimes and Criminals i. Gender and Crime ii. Age and Crime iii. Social Class and Crime iv. Race and Crime f. Crime Victims
9 VII. The Criminal Justice System a. The Police b. The Courts c. Punishment and Corrections (any action designed to deprive a person of things of value (including liberty) because of some offense the person is thought to have committed) i. Retribution (punishment that a person receives for infringing on the rights of others) ii. General Deterrence (seeks to reduce criminal activity by instilling a fear of punishment in the general public) iii. Incapacitation (based on the assumption that offenders who are detained in prison or are executed will be unable to commit additional crimes) iv. Rehabilitation (seeks to return offenders to the community as law abiding citizens by providing therapy or vocational or educational training) d. The Death Penalty VIII. Deviance and Crime in the United States in the Future IX. The Global Economy Chapter 8 Outline Chapter 8 – Class and Stratification in the United States What is Social Stratification? Social Stratification the hierarchal arrangement of large social groupsbased on their control over basic resources. Stratification -Involves patterns of structural inequality that are associated with membership in each of these groups. -Involves ideologies that support inequality. - Linked to the specific economic and social structure of a society and to a nation’s position in the system of global stratification. - Sociologists -Examine the social groups that make up the hierarchy in a society. -Seek to determine how inequalities are structured and persist over time. Life chances Max Weber’s term for the extent o which inividuals have access to important societal resources such as food, clothing, shelter, education, and health care. More-affluent – better life chances (Greater access to resources) Less- affluent – worse life chances *Resources – anything valued in society, scarce. Ex: money, education Life chances are intertwined with class, race, gender, and age. Inequality is the result of religion, race/ethnicity, appearance, physical strength, disabilities etc.
10 Systems of Stratification Important characteristic of Stratification : Flexibility - Open-system – heirarchial boundaries more flexible, influenced by people’s achieved statuses. - Closed-system – rigid boundaries example: slavery * Most systems consist of both open and closed. Social mobility the movement of individuals or groups from one level ina stratification system to another. Intergenerational mobilit y the social movement (upward or downward) experienced by family members from one generation to the next.