There are 2 tests of memory:Recall: reproduction of information to which you were previously exposed/learned.4
Recognition: realization that a certain stimulus is one you have seen or heard before. Recognitioncues are often stronger and more straightforward. Ex. multiple choice test. Generally easy to do. CONTEXT & ENCODINGEncoding Specificity: memories emerge most efficiently when the context of retrieval matches the contextof encoding. It is similar to the concept of state-dependent learning. Context-dependent memory improves recall (ex. seeing someone that you always would see at a happy event, warm feelings towards them). Retrieval can be altered by the context and distinctiveness of the experience being recalled (contextual distinctiveness). Transfer-Appropriate Processing: states that recall is the best if the cognitive processes used during encoding are the same as those for retrieval.FORGETTINGEbbinghaus designed first methods used in the systematic study of forgetting:1.Use of nonsense syllables (gak, gah, gat) & rote learning (memorize the nonsense syllables).2.Recall decreases most in the short period after learning, but levels off over time due to savings. SEVEN SINS OF MEMORYOmission:Transience: information is temporary and fades with time, it decays. Involves the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve.Absent-Mindedness: disruption of encoding due to lack of attention.Blocking: retrieval failure – memory is encoded but hard to get out. Tip of the tongue phenomena (you know you the thing but ??!?!?!?) and “feelings of knowing”. Repression (active suppression of memory), very controversial, more likely involved in traumatic memories.Commission:Misattribution: confusing the source of a memory.Cryptomnesia: when a person unintentionally plagiarizes someone else’s ideas, believingthat an idea is original or new when it truly originated with someone else, having long forgotten the original source.Consistency Bias: selective recall of past events to fit current beliefs. Ability to generate different memories based off of what we attend to. We edit memories based on what we now know or currently believe.Persistence: repeated recall of events, even when we try to forget them. PTSD.Suggestibility: memories implanted based upon leading questions or suggestions. People can alter their memories based on word choice.Interference: when retrieval cues do not point effectively to one specific memory. Other information competes with the information we are trying to recall. Proactive Interference: information you have acquired in the past that makes it more difficult to acquire new information.Retroactive Interference: acquisition of new information makes it difficult to remember old information. MEMORY CONSTRUCTIONFalse Memories: memories that never happened, but were suggested by someone or something.