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in the blood causing determination of what a high test result to be complicated. ("Mayo Clinic," 2019) If raised PSA levels are detected the test is normally repeated. Persistently raised levels will typically cause the clinician to order a transrectal, ultrasound-guided, core-needle biopsy in order to test for prostate cancer. If detected surgery, radiation therapy, hormonal treatment or watchful waiting are all possible management options. If the gentleman has a higher risk for cancer, diagnostic imaging studies such as computed tomography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging will be ordered to check for any spread of the disease. (Tikkinen, 2018)Both clinicians and patients who are considering a PSA based screening need to weigh the benefits against the short and long term potential harms before proceeding. A meta-analysis by the British Medical Journal indicates that there is only a small benefit in prostate cancer-specific mortality but does not reduce overall mortality from PSA screening. The possible short
WEEK 3 PSA3term complications include both false positive and false negative findings, with the long term effects, are treatment-related side effects including both urinary and sexual function issues. (Ilic et al., 2018) Patients who value avoiding complications from biopsies and cancer treatment will most likely decline the screening whereas men who put importance on even a small reduction of prostate cancer mortality will opt for the screening.
WEEK 3 PSA4ReferencesCarter, H. B. (2018). Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Screening for Prostate Cancer. Journal of the American Medical Association, 319(18), 1866-1868. Ilic, D., Djulbegovic, M., Jung, J. H., Chang Hwang, E., Zhou, Q., Cleves, A., ... Dahm, P. (2018). Prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The BMJ. PSA Test. (2019). Retrieved from -test/about/pac-20384731Tikkinen, K. A. (2018). Prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test: a clinical practice guideline. The BMJ.