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Figure 5.5 Patrician with Busts of Ancestors (Barberini Togatus).Early first century CE. Marble, ht. 5′5″. Palazzo dei Conservatori, Rome. The stern and wrinkled faces of the anonymous patrician and his ancestors convey the quiet dignity and authority of the typical paterfamilias. Some scholars think that these portrait busts, with their unflattering realism, were modeled on death masks.110CHAPTER FIVE: CLASSICAL ROMEBATTLE,MONEKE2207TS
Powerful men always had many clients. Patrons might look out for the legal, economic, or political interests of their clients, who could be expected to support their patrons politically, for example, by voting their pref-erences in the assemblies. Patron-client bonds were another aspect of the culture of deference that charac-terized Roman society.Roman ReligionRoman religion began in the household, in the familia.Janus was the god of the doorway and became the god of the gates of the city. Vesta was the goddess of the domestic hearth and became the goddess of the civic hearth. Early Roman religion probably owed a lot to the Etruscans but is almost completely obscure to us. By the time we have abundant source material, the Romans themselves had encountered the Greeks of Magna Graecia and of the Hellenistic world. Hence the familiar Roman gods and goddesses are the Greek Olympians with Roman names and sometimes with slightly adjusted areas of responsibility (Table 5.1). As they fought and traded, the Romans met other reli-gions too and brought them home. From Egypt they imported the cult of Isis and from Asia Minor, Cybele. In other words, and as elsewhere in the Hellenistic world, mystery cults (see Chapter 4) supplemented civic religion in the daily experience of most people.For Romans, religion was fundamentally civic. Re-ligio,whence our word religion,basically means “to bind.” Roman religious rites were intended to bind the gods and goddesses, to get them to deliver abundant crops, healthy childbirths, or victory in war. In order to bind the gods, the Roman had countless rituals throughout the annual calendar. One group of Roman Perhaps because women already enjoyed a measure of equality in Etruscan times, Roman women were not secluded and invisible the way Athenian women tended to be.Patronage, another word that derives from pater(“father”) means “protector.” Patrons and clients con-stituted another kind of Roman family. Generals were patrons to their soldiers, as we have seen. Wealthy land-owners were often patrons to their peasant neighbors. Figure 5.6 Eumachia. Mid–first century CE. Marble. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. This statue of Eumachia, which was found at Pompeii, shows that Roman matrons were involved in public life. The inscription on the statue’s base praises Eumachia for having donated a building in the town’s forum for the use of the fullers—workers involved in making woolen cloth. Her statue was paid for by the fullers’ association in gratitude for her gift. Her idealized face reflects the Hellenic ideal preferred