Tenant farming- a step up from sharecroppingestablished black schools (freedmens Bureau)persistent black povertyReunited familiesRace Question /Booker T. WashingtonSome blacks succeeded in elevating to a distinct middle class.Aquired property, established businesses, entered professionsBelieved education was vital to their future- expanded
the network of black colleges that had started during reconstruction. Booker T. Washington- founder and president of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. Born into slavery, he worked his way out of poverty and aquired and education. oPrimary message was SELF-IMPROVEMENT- blacks should forgo agitation for political rights and concentrate on self-improvement and preparation for equality.oAlso intended to assure whites that blacks would not challenge the emerging system of segragation.Black Codes- part of the Radical reconstuction which authorized officials to aApprehend unemployed blacks, fine them for vagrancy, and hireThem out to private employers to satisfy the fine. Some forbadeBlacks to own or lease farms or to take any jobs other than asPlantation workers of domestic servants. (like slavery)Jim Crow Laws- Established and elaborate system of segregation.Stripped blacks of the modest social, economic and Political gains they had made.>Plessy v. Ferguson-separate accomidations did not deny blacks equal rights if the accommodationswere equal.Cumming v. County Board of Education-communitiesCould establish schools for whites only, even If there were no comparable schools for blacks.Black Disenfranchisement-Small white farmers objected to the black vote Being used against them by Bourbons.Poll tax or some sort of property qualification- few blacksWere prosperous enough to meet the requirement.Literacy test- required voters to demonstrate the ability to
Read and interpret the constitution. Affected black and white vote.New South- Industrial expansion in the South.Textile industry expanded due to cotton industryTobacco processing industry grewRailroad developmentNew labor markets for both blacks and whitesLost Cause-After the Civil war, when reconstruction proceeded and ended, white southerners came back to power Called “redeemers” and “bourbons”oJim Crow Laws/ Black CodesoThere were pockets of coopperation•The Lost cause began by remembering Confederate soldiers- oDecoration Day, established monuments, veterans group meetings, literature, and confederate reenactments. oSymbols: the Flag oWhat makes the South:PrideChivalry-> patriarchy, respect for eldersLoyaltyHistoryPaceSelf SufficientReligion Dialect- speechSouthern Belles/GentlemenFoodsThe Death Penalty-Gun ControlMusicLandscapeArchitectureMore Conservative Southern HospitalitySLAVERY- drove economy oThe Lost Cause-excluded the blacks- had nothing to do with Southern HistoryThe presence of blacks and whites together makes the south the SOUTH!