By late 20 th century we see the emergence of nuclear power and renewables and

By late 20 th century we see the emergence of nuclear

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By late 20 th century we see the emergence of nuclear power and renewables- and we will return to those technologies later! History of Energy Sources in USA
Lecture 16 Energy = Development = Economic Growth = Fossil Fuels History of Energy Sources in USA
Lecture 16 Oil is primarily used for transport Coal is used for power generation Natural gas is for heating, industry processes, power Renewables and Nuclear are for power generation Traditional biomass: wood and dung for heating Energy sources are not equivalent in Use! Source and Use of Energy in World Today
Lecture 16 Now: ~15% transport, ~35% power, ~50% heat (buildings/homes) In 2030: ~20% transport, ~40% power, ~40% heat (buildings/ homes). As societies become wealthier they like mobility and power (cars, refrigerators, air conditioners etc). Growth of Energy by Use Category
Lecture 16 Energy and Technology: Past and Future [3] Future World Energy Sources and their Availability
Lecture 16 Hydropower is 6%: flat Nuclear is 6%: increasing? Energy Sources in World Today Oil is 37%: decreasing although in absolute it is not leveling off Coal is 27%: decreasing but is starting to resurge Natural gas is 24%: increasing
Lecture 16 ~75% of energy sources will be fossil fuels The other 25% are nuclear and renewables such as traditional biomass, wind, hydropower: technologies that are established (i.e. nuclear with controversy) or developing technologies that have not fully emerged! Projected Energy Demand and Sources
Lecture 16 Oil: We have ~40 years now, another ~40 years yet to find, and ~40 years of harder to extract (tar sands and shale) Gas: We have ~60 years now, ~100 years yet to find, ~150 years of harder to extract (methane hydrates and permafrost) But coal is where we have immediate abundance: ~165 years and maybe as high as ~1000 years of some yet to find! We Have Plenty of Fossil Fuels
Lecture 16 Who has the most of a certain energy source will control that energy source Middle East has most of oil and gas: but no coal Russia: Lots of oil, gas, coal Asia-Pacific: Lots of coal Europe: Some coal North America: Unconventional oil, gas, and lots of coal Security of Fossil Fuel Supply
Lecture 16 Historically, there is a mismatch of those countries (N. America, Europe, Asia Pacific) that consume oil and gas with very little of their own reserves. These countries have turned to coal for their energy needs to ensure supply (uptick in coal use we saw earlier was due to the Chinese turning coal into liquid fuel for transport) Security of Fossil Fuel Supply
Lecture 16 But this is rapidly changing in North America! Fracking and Keystone are the new energy sources for shale oil/gas and tar sand, respectively Security of Fossil Fuel Supply
Lecture 16 Energy and Technology: Past and Future [3] Environmental Impact of Energy Sources
Lecture 16 Los Angeles basin in 1960 s and 1970 s Increasing stringent regulations drove technology development that were deployed to clean up Los Angeles air.

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