These peop contributed to the rise in migration through Libya by enabling youth

These peop contributed to the rise in migration

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of Planning in Garowe, “magafe” means “person who never misses.” These people have contributed to the rise in migration through Libya by enabling youth to leave without money. “Sub-magafes” in Bossasso, Hargeysa, Garowe and others recruit youth to travel abroad. They do not ask for money, but once the youth have arrived at the destination, the magafe call families and threaten to cut off body parts or kill the youth unless a ransom is paid. Families are forced to pay these ransoms mainly by selling property. 20 In many cases the sub-magafe may first ask questions about the property of the targeted youth – to ensure they get their money’s worth. 21 Efforts to combat these activities are limited by the positive perceptions of life abroad. Despite multiple awareness raising campaigns educating youth about the risks involved in the journey as well as the life as irregular migrant in the place of destination, the chance of succeeding and the culture of only believing when seeing seem to be more powerful. Youth sneak away as they believe that a) their families would not give them the money to leave; and b) they will be able to earn the money back quickly. BOREDOM AND LACK OF LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES As pointed out by a returnee from Syria, “the lifestyle is very different from what I am used to – there is completely no social life.” (Female case study participant, migrated from Syria, Hargeysa). While a lack of employment and income generating opportunities and perceived bigger job opportunities abroad seem to be the main driver for youth to migrate abroad, a lack of recreational opportunities for youth in Somaliland is a factor for a perceived better life outside of Somaliland that should not be neglected. Enumerators as well as KII pointed out that “there was nothing to do for youth in Burao and not even in Hargeysa”. Particularly the Ministry of Youth, Sports and Tourism outlined that “ there are no facilities for entertainment: no libraries, no youth centres. Even in schools there are no facilities for entertainment. This situation results in two issues: he or she migrates, or they join criminal gangs.” (Ministry of Youth, Sports and Tourism, Hargeysa). In Hargeysa and Garowe, sports facilities were especially mentioned as being something appealing to youth. A Turkish company has recently opened several football fields with synthetic turf in Hargeysa, which are highly popular among youth. Also in Garowe, there are two fields where one can reportedly find half the young people in town there: “this is the only place where we can catch up with our friends and play football, talk, without being watched by our parents or taking risks for our safety” (Male focus group participant, Garowe). GREENER GRASS SYNDROME, COGNITIVE DISONANCE, AND AWARENESS Finally, the qualitative and quantitative findings of the present study corroborate the assessment of the Somali diaspora in Europe 22 : the greener grass syndrome plays a key role in individual decision-making processes. As often observed by focus group participants, the
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  • Fall '17
  • IOM, Human migration, Somaliland

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