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6.A police officer is considered an expert in the area of gangs and gang behavior. The courts are not permitted to give extra credence to the judgments of the expert when (s)he applies for a search or arrest warrant in a case involving gang behavior.7.The decision in Illinois v. Gates(1983) completely overruled the Aguilar-Spinellicriteria for establishing probable cause based on informant information. The Aguilar-Spinellicriteria did not retain their vitality in analyzing the presence of probable cause in cases of informant information.8.Ordinary citizen informants, even when the tip is given anonymously, arealways presumed credible (trustworthy) and no further evidence of
credibility need be stated in the affidavit beyond their name and addressand their status as a victim of, or witness to, a crime.ANS: F REF: 112-113 LO: 49.A criminal informant’s credibility (veracity/truthfulness) must always be established by a statement of underlying facts and circumstances.10.Other Fourth Amendment considerations, such as warrants, reasonableness, exigency, and good faith, are factors that are considered subservient to probable cause.Fill-in-the-blank1.In terms of applying the privacy right that exists under the Fourth Amendment, the amendment is said to protect __________, not __________.2.A seizure of property occurs when there is some __________ with an individual’s possessory interests in that property.
3.Probable cause to search means that there is a __________ that contraband or evidence of a crime will be found in a particular place.4.Probable cause is evaluated by examining the __________ in the possession of the police at the time of the arrest or search, not merely the personal knowledge of the arresting or searching officer.5.The Gates v. Illinois (1983) decision abandoned rigid adherence to the Aguilar-Spinellicriteria in favor of a __________ approach to determining probable cause.6.A criminal informant’s credibility is never presumed but must be established. Usually, this is done by demonstrating the informant’s __________ of having given accurate information in the past.