Until 1906, religious minorities subject to pressure Tried to keep a low profile as a result Shah has always tried to care for everyone Had arbitrary power and could appoint anyone to any position Non-Muslims could rise very high but be subjected to local humiliation Constitution changed this: glass ceiling but citizenship Non-Muslims could only rise so high, but recognized as citizens Start flourishing in Iran, move into new neighborhoods Have an educational advantage Only in 1963 did women get right to vote
Constitutional Revolution pushed back power of clergy Before, they almost had a monopoly on education Gradually marginalized after constitution Before, also had a lot of legal power Iranian parliament elaborated new legal codes Created a legal system with fixed codes, replaced sharia Sharia incorporated into modern civil law Specifically, everything with personal law I.e., marriage, divorce, inheritance, birth “Non-Muslims will deal with this according to their own system” Came up with their own coded sharia Legal codes, but no state to enforce it Clerics further marginalized with creation of legal system Functions of cleric taken over by government In 1920s, many clerics adapted to this and became legislatures Constitutional revolution has artistic implications Music highly polarized today First concert held after revolution Clerics believe that music makes you long for women, sex, alcohol 1906-1925: Golden age for music Much of Iranian music owes itself to Jewish population Have nothing against music 1906 music prospers and most conservative clergy pushed back World War I has large impact on Iran Iran revealed to be weak meaning constitutional revolution had not strengthened Iran Idea that maybe Iranians not ready for democracy Argue that Iran needs a strong man Agreed to by British who fear communism Communists agents successful in Northern Iran Called itself the Soviet Republic of Iran By 1919/1920, there is a communist regime in Northern Iran Communist rebellion in the North Idea gathers that only way to end it is with a strong man Persian leader of Cossacks emerges Reza Khan (Khan not a family name, like Spanish don) Self-made man, brought up by uncle, self-taught, patriotic Reza joined forces with others who were upset about Iran’s state February 21 st , 1921: stages military coupe King has no choice but to name a journalist prime minister Prime minister resigns and flees, Reza becomes strong man
Reza names himself minister of war, creates a modern army Oil income increase so he could do this Controversy over if Reza was a British puppet Commander of British troops in Iran gave weapons to support coupe Not British Government Reza grows in popularity Becomes Prime Minister in 1923 Lecture 5 : 2 February 2017 1926 Reza Shah Coronation (crowns himself) Crown made of Indian Jewels Founder of Pahlavi Dynasty, smooth transition Last ruler, “young king” fled to Paris where he died a few years later Mohammad Mossadegh, cousin of last Shahn, lawyer
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- Spring '17
- Mohammad Reza Pahlavi